Term Paper: First World War

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[. . .] The Eastern Front was the largest battlefield from World War I. Russia, and from 1916 Romania, fought on one side and Germany and Austria-Hungary on the other one. Also, on the Eastern Front trenches were built, but due to a lack of manpower warfare was more fluid. "Handicapping lengthy advances by either side, however, were the region's primitive transportation network and harsh winter conditions, on which successful offensive inevitably ground to a halt." (Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts, page 611)

After Russian troops invaded German Poland and East Prussia, in August 1914 Russia was defeated by Germany at Tannenberg. Germany needed to take two army groups from the Western Front to defend themselves from the Russian assaults. This action caused the defeat of Germany in the Battle of Marne.

Due to Russia's inability to pass through German line, in 1917 Russian Revolution was triggered. The monarch was changed with Vladimir Lenin. In December 1917, he signed an armistice with the Central Powers, "freeing German troops to face the other Allies on the Western Front." (World War I)

The battle of Tannenberg was the first important fight from the Eastern Front. The battle began on 26 August 1914; with Russians on one side, and the Germans on the other side. The Germans found about Russian plans through radio messages which were decoded and defeated the Red Army on Masurian Lakes in 8-14 September. The Austro-Hungarian army wanted to invade Serbia, but its plan was aggravated by the Russian army's intervention. The Austro-Hungarian army needed to fight both the Serbian army and the Russian army and as a result it could not conquer Serbia.

In 1914 the Ottoman Empire joined the War on the Central Powers side. The Allies tried to defeat the Ottoman Empire, but their plan was a total failure. They were defeated first on the Dardanelles, and although they invaded the Gallipoli Peninsula in January 1916 they needed to retreat their army from the Peninsula. British and Italian troops also fought against the Turk army. In 1915 the First Battle of the Isonzo took place. The second Battle of the Isonzo, the Battle of Caporetto, took place two years after that, and was proven to be a success for Austria-Hungary. Due to German aggression on the sea, in 1917 the United States of America joined the war as part of the allied army. Soon after their entrance in the war, the Americans declared war against Germany.

After the armistice with Russia, Germany was able to build back its defense on the Western Front. The Second Battle of Marne began on July 15, 1918. Due to a better defense from the Allied side, the Germans needed to move their troops towards the north where they hoped they will be able to win the war. The Ottoman Empire needed to sign a treaty with the Allies in October 1918 and on November 11, 1918, Germany was obliged to seek an armistice with the Allies. This event marked the end of World War I.

References:

1. Joll, James, Martel Gordon, First World War, Pearson Education, 2007

2. World War I, Retrieved December 21, 2012 from the History website: http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-i

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First World War.  (2012, December 25).  Retrieved July 22, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/first-world-war-started/8691213

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"First World War."  Essaytown.com.  December 25, 2012.  Accessed July 22, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/first-world-war-started/8691213.