Research Paper: Food Served in Public

Pages: 7 (2618 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 9  ·  Level: College Junior  ·  Topic: Writing  ·  Buy This Paper

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[. . .] Project 5: Some drawbacks.

Provided the damaging effects of competitive meals on pupil wellness and health, limitations on competitive food sales and accessibility have actually been proposed at all levels of government. There are issues that constraints may have unintentional adverse repercussions: loss of profits from competitive food sales; pupil fixation with body weight; as well as, a compensatory boost in unhealthy food usage by pupils in the home. The proof, nevertheless, does not corroborate such issues.

There is proof that competitive meals do produce incomes for schools to support food service operations and pupil tasks-- for this reason the issue over monetary losses with the application of more powerful criteria (Government Liability Workplace, 2005). (However as discussed, schools utilize school meal income to subsidize competitive meals, calling into concern the value of competitive meals as a financing source.) A current testimonial of the literature discovers that the large bulk of schools that enhance the dietary quality of competitive food providings do not experience succeeding losses in overall profits-- with the making up incomes coming most likely as an outcome of enhanced involvement in the National School Lunch Program (Wharton et al., 2008).

In reality, a federal report explaining 32 case history of schools and school areas concludes that pupils will buy and eat healthier competitive meals and refreshments when offered, and numerous schools even state boosts in income when making such modifications (UNITED STATE Division of Farming, Food and Nutrition Service, 2005).

While monetary losses get the most attention in policy arguments about competitive meals, there likewise are issues that sympathetic school nutrition policies limiting junk foods will lead to unwanted dietary habits, consisting of an unhealthy fixation with body weight and overconsumption of processed food beyond school. While the research is simply arising on this concern, a current research discovers no proof of a compensatory boost in the usage of junk food in the home and no proof for a boost in body frustration or weight issues when unhealthy competitive meals and drinks are gotten rid of from schools and changed with healthier products (Schwartz et al., 2009).

References

Anderson, P.M. & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Reading, writing, and refreshments: are school finances contributing to children's obesity? Journal of Human Resources, 41(3), 467 -- 494.

Belansky, E., Chriqui, J.F., & Schwartz, M.B. (2009). Local school wellness policies: how are schools implementing the congressional mandate? Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Research Brief. Available at: http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/20090708localwellness.pdf. Accessed April 20, 2013.

Briefel, R.R., Crepinsek, M.K., Cabili, C., Wilson, A., & Gleason, P.M. (2009). School food environments and practices affect dietary behaviors of U.S. public school children. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(2 Supplement 1), S91-S107.

Briefel, R.R., Wilson, A., & Gleason, P.M. (2009). Consumption of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods and beverages at school, home, and other locations among school lunch participants and nonparticipants. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(2 Supplement 1), S79-S90.

Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004. Public Law 108-265. June 30, 2004. 118 Stat. 729. Available at: http://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/Governance/Legislation/Historical/PL_108-265.pdf. Accessed April 20, 2013.

Food Research and Action Center. (2010). How Competitive Foods in Schools Impact Student Health, School Meal Programs, and Students from Low -- Income Families. Issue Briefs for Child Nutrition Reauthorization.

Fox, M.K., Dodd, A.H., Wilson, A., & Gleason, P.M. (2009b). Association between school food environment and practices and body mass index of U.S. public school children. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(2 Supplement 1), S108-S117.

Fox, M.K., Gordon, A., Nogales, R., & Wilson, A. (2009a). Availability and consumption of competitive foods in U.S. public schools. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(2 Supplement 1), S57-S66.

French, S.A., Story, M., & Jeffery, R.W. (2001). Environmental influences on eating and physical activity.Annual Review of Public Health, 22, 309-335.

Gonzalez, W., Jones, S.J., & Frongillo, E.A. (2009). Restricting snacks in U.S. elementary schools is associated with higher frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption. Journal of Nutrition, 139(1), 142-144.

Government Accountability Office. (2005). School Meal Programs: Competitive Foods Are Widely Available and Generate Substantial Revenues for Schools. Report No. GAO-05-563. Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office.

Hartline-Grafton, H. (2010). How improving federal nutrition program access and quality work together to reduce hunger and promote healthy eating. Issue Briefs for Child Nutrition Reauthorization, 1. Washington, DC: Food Research and Action Center. Available at: http://www.frac.org/pdf/CNR01_qualityandaccess.pdf. Accessed April 20, 2013.

Institute of Medicine. (2007). Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools: Leading the Way Toward Healthier Youth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Jones, S.J., Gonzalez, W., & Frongillo, E.A. (2010). Policies that restrict sweetened beverage availability may reduce consumption in elementary-school children. Public Health Nutrition, 13(4), 589-595.

Kubik, M.Y., Lytle, L.A., & Story, M. (2005). Schoolwide food practices are associated with body mass index in middle school students. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 159(12), 1111-1114.

Kubik, M.Y., Lytle, L.A., Hannan, P.J., Perry, C.L., & Story, M. (2003). The association of the school food environment with dietary behaviors of young adolescents. American Journal of Public Health, 93(7), 1168-1173.

Larson, N.I., Story, M.T., & Nelson, M.C. (2009). Neighborhood environments: disparities in access to healthy foods in the U.S. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36(1), 74-81.

Neumark-Sztainer, D., French, S.A., Hannan, P.J., Story, M., & Fulkerson, J.A. (2005). School lunch and snacking patterns among high school students: associations with school food environment and policies. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 2(1), 14.

Ogden, C.L., Carroll, M.D., Curtin, L.R., Lamb, M.M., & Flegal, K.M. (2010). Prevalence of high body mass index in U.S. children and adolescents, 20072008. Journal of the American Medical Association, 91(3), 519-527.

Sallis, J.F. & Glanz, K. (2009). Physical activity and food environments: solutions to the obesity epidemic. Milbank Quarterly, 87(1), 123-154.

Schwartz, M.B., Novak, S.A., & Fiore, S.S. (2009). The impact of removing snacks of low nutritional value from middle schools. Health Education and Behavior, 36(6), 999-1011.

Templeton, S.B., Marlette, M.A., & Panemangalore, M. (2005). Competitive foods increase the intake of energy and decrease the intake of certain nutrients by adolescents consuming school lunch. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 105(2), 215-220.

Terry-McElrath, Y.M., O'Malley, P.M., Delva, J., & Johnston, L.D. (2009). The school food environment and student body mass index and food consumption: 2004 to 2007 national data. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45(3 Supplement), S45-S56.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and U.S. Department of Education. (2005). Making It Happen! School Nutrition Success Stories. FNS-374. Available at: http://www.fns.usda.gov/TN/Resources/makingithappen.html. Accessed April 20, 2013.

Wharton, C.M., Long, M., & Schwartz, M.B. (2008). Changing nutrition standards in schools: the emerging impact on school revenue. Journal of… [END OF PREVIEW]

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