Term Paper: Foreign Policy Nixon's Detente Description

Pages: 10 (4534 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 1+  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: American History  ·  Buy This Paper

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President Ronald Reagan declared that the Soviet Union had violated the treaty.

Foreign Policy

The treaty was consistent with United States' policy to slow down the arms' race.

Event Resolved?

SALT II was not ratified due to a shift in United States' policy under President Reagan and the Soviet Union's lack of desire to abide by the treaty.

Rate the event:. 2. Increased Tensions. 4

Soviet Invasion and War in Afghanistan

Description

The war took place between 1979-89 in Afghanistan. In 1978 a coup brought in a new Communist government. In 1979 another coup brought in another leader, which caused the Soviet Union to invade and install Hafizullah Amin in December 1979. The Soviets put in Babrak Karmal as president and eventually brought in 100,000 troops. The United States, China and Saudi Arabia supported the Muslims. The Soviets had superior weapons, but the rebels managed to elude the Soviets until Karmal finally resigned in 1986 and Mikhail Gorbachev agreed to withdraw the troops in 1988. By 1989, the Soviets had withdrawn all the troops.

People involved:

The war began under Soviet President Brezhnev. Presidents Chernenko and Andropov inherited the war when they took office.

The bloodiest fighting in Afghanistan took place under Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-1986) before he began withdrawing troops.

President Carter, Ford and Reagan were in office during the Soviet war in Afghanistan. All provided aid.

Foreign Policy

The United States' position to aid the Afghan rebels was in line with the foreign policy of the time, which was to contain communism. Prior to the war, the United States supported the Afghan president, Noor Mohammed Tureki. Later the United States shifted its foreign policy saying that the United States would not let anything get in the way of the friendship between America and Afghanistan. Then the State Department said that the United States did business with whoever was in power, whether the government was legitimate or not. These policies under President Carter were all in conflict with each other (Sloan).

Event Resolved?

The event was resolved when the Soviet Union pulled out of Afghanistan without having met its (the Soviet Union) goals. Civil war continued in Afghanistan after the Soviet pull-out; therefore the issue was not resolved.

Rate the event: 1. Warlike.

The Moscow Olympics

Description

The Moscow Summer Olympics in 1980 became a vehicle of protest during the Carter administration. Because the Soviet Union had invaded Afghanistan, Jimmy Carter opted to boycott the American presence at the games.

President Involved

Jimmy Carter

People involved:

Jimmy Carter called for the boycott

American athletes who were forbidden from competing in the games.

Foreign Policy

The boycott was in line with Carter's human-rights policy.

Event Resolved?

The event was resolved after the Olympics took place and American teams did not attend.

Camp David Accord

Description

The 1979 agreement between Egypt and Israel was signed on March 26, 1979 in Washington D.C. The treaty called for Israel's withdrawal from Sinai and Egypt would recognize Israel with full diplomatic relations. Sinai would be demilitarized with the help of the United States (Camp David Accord).

President Involved

Jimmy Carter

People involved:

President Jimmy Carter brokered the deal at Camp David and visited Israel and Egypt just before the treaty was signed

Anwar al-Sadat the Egyption president who signed the Accord

Menachem Begin, the Israeli prime minister who signed the Accord.

Foreign Policy

Carter witnessed the signing that was in line with America's foreign policy to recognize Israel as a State.

Event Resolved?

The demilitarization was successful and completed in 1981.

Rate the event: Decreased Tensions. 5.

Iranian Hostage Crisis

Description

Tensions between the United States and Iran were tense after the overthrow of Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlevi of Iran. When the exiled Shah was admitted to the United States for medical treatment, about 500 students seized the U.S. Embassy in Teheran. Of the 90 people who were at the embassy at the time 55 were held until the end of the crisis. President Carter halted oil and froze Iranian assets in the United States. He also attempted diplomacy. AU.S. led rescue mission was aborted when U.S. helicopters were damaged in a sandstorm and eight people died. On the day of President Ronald Reagan's inauguraton the hostages were released (Iranian Hostage Crisis).

President involved

Jimmy Carter

Ronald Reagan

People involved:

President Jimmy Carter tried in vain to negotiate the hostage release. The crisis was one of the reasons for his re-election defeat.

The exiled Shah of Iran - His coming to the United States sparked the crisis.

Secretary of State Cyrus Vance under Carter opposed the action to rescue the hostages, but resigned when the mission was aborted.

Foreign Policy

The United State Policy in Iran was contrary to Carter's Human Rights' policies, which stated that all humans should be treated with respect.

Event Resolved?

The event was resolved after 444 Days.

Rate the event: 2. Increased Tensions.

The Strategic Defense Initiative

Description

The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was a program under the Strategic Defense Initiative Office, an agency of the United States Department of Defense in Washington, D.C.. President Ronald Reagan announced the program on March 23, 1983, which was responsible for research and development of a space-based system. This system would defend the United States from attacks by strategic guided missiles. Critics called the program "Star Wars" (Strategic Defense Initiative).

President Involved

Ronald Reagan

People involved:

President Ronald Reagan pushed the program to the American people and called for cooperation among other agencies to make the program work.

Scientists from the NASA and other space agencies worked on the program.

The Soviet government would have to think twice before launching an attack against the United States.

Foreign Policy

Ronald Reagan's foreign policy adhered to the "peace through Strength" philosophy. SDI was a means to achieve this and was not contradictory.

Event Resolved?

Many of SDI's components were not technically feasible and therefore the program could not be fully implemented. As a result, in the 1990s, SDI was redefined as a proposed defense against limited nuclear missile attacks rather than against a major exchange of nuclear weapons (Strategic Defense Initiative).

Rate the event: 4. Decreased Tensions.

INF Treaty

Description

The INF treaty was a treaty signed in 1987 by President Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev as part of a set of negotiations that began in 1982, called Start (Strategic Arms Reduction Talks). The treaty was intended to eliminate intermediate-range nuclear forces (Disarmament, Nuclear: International Agreements).

President involved

Ronald Reagan

People involved:

Mikhail Gorbachev, leader of the Soviet Union and President Ronald Reagan signed the treaty.

President George Bush (Senior) continued the negotiations and agreed to the elimination of most the United States' tactical arms, took strategic bombers off alert status and continued to reduce the amount of ballistic missiles in the United States' arsenal.

Russian President Yeltsin agreed to a START II treaty after the fall of the Soviet Union. The treaty called for reducing the amount of nuclear weapons by two-thirds by 2003.

Foreign Policy

The treaty was in line with Ronald Reagan's policy of peace through strength, while working diplomatically with America's foes.

Event Resolved?

The event was successful until the fall of the Soviet Union when countries such as the Ukraine did not sign onto START for fear of a Russian invasion.

Rate the event:. 4. Decreased Tensions.

Perestroika and Glasnost

Description

Perestroika means restructuring in Russian. Perestroika was Russian President Mikhail Gorbachev's policy in Moscow that hoped to transform the economy of Russia from stagnant and inefficient economy, which was the result of a centralized Soviet Union, into a decentralized and vital one (Perestroika). Glasnost, openness, came about at the same time when Gorbachev began to promote a policy where the public could discuss the Soviet Union's problems at the time, as well as historical problems. Many atrocities were discussed such as the brutality of the Stalin regime and purges such as the Katyn massacre. In promoting Glasnost, Gorbachev and Soviet leaders were more open to the press and to foreign leaders. He hoped that Glasnost would promote Perestroika program (Glasnost).

President involved

Ronald Reagan

People involved:

Russian President Mikhail Gorbachev hoped Perestroika would democratize Russia and that Glasnost would open up communication between Eastern and Western leaders.

The Media received more access to the leaders of the Soviet Union

President Ronald Reagan benefited in a renewal of Detente talks with the U.S.S.R.

Russian industrial managers, local government and party officials were given more autonomy under Perestroika.

Foreign Policy

Though the policies were Soviet, the policy helped further policies under Reagan that hoped to put an end to the Cold War.

Event Resolved?

Perestroika was only partially successful and its implementation thwarted after the failed August Coup of 1991 resulted in a change in the Russian constitution.

Rate the event: 5. Peaceful.

Tiananmen Square

Description

The event that took place on Tiananmen Square in China began as a massive demonstration for democratic reform in April of 1989.… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Foreign Policy Nixon's Detente Description.  (2003, April 22).  Retrieved April 20, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/foreign-policy-nixon-detente-description/7227918

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"Foreign Policy Nixon's Detente Description."  Essaytown.com.  April 22, 2003.  Accessed April 20, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/foreign-policy-nixon-detente-description/7227918.