Foundations of Criminology A-Level Coursework

Pages: 6 (1964 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 8  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Criminal Justice

Criminology is generally the study of crime, criminals, and victims (Lanier, & Henry, 1998). Offenders go through the criminal justice system through an (ideally) fair trial, if the suspected offender is found guilty, a sentence is decided and the offender serves his or her time. Crime involves a variety of misdeeds; these can be through political corruption, corporate fraud, employee theft, and small offenses committed by ordinary Americans. The criminal justice system is an important part of our everyday lives, it sets out rules and functions that governs people and keeps the interests of society protected. The purpose of the criminal justice system is to maintain social control and to deliver justice for all. This system is used by the government to administer justice, the system tries to achieve this by convicting and punishing the guilty and helping them stop offending, while protecting the innocent. One of the main goals of the criminal justice system is to promote public confidence, this goal can be achieved by bringing more offenders to justice, when this goal is achieved it will raise public confidence that the system is fair and just. Criminology is not only defined by a particular unit of social reality, but by its substantive concern, which is crime (Carrabine, Iganski, Lee, Plummer, & South, 2004). To criminologists, the scope of crime is much vaster than what media shows through their coverage of inner-city gang violence, bank heists, car-jacking, workplace homicides, and drug abuse.Buy full Download Microsoft Word File paper
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A-Level Coursework on Foundations of Criminology Assignment

Criminology is not just the study of the nature of such harmful behaviors, but it also explains causes and systematic practices which produce patterns of harm in a spectrum of social contexts (Lanier, & Henry, 1998). It is a discipline used by practitioners, policymakers and academics. However, these people can have very different disciplinary concerns which can range from psychiatry to sociology (Carrabine, et. al., 2004). There are different ways to characterize this multifaceted discipline. Today, there are different perspectives of looking at crime or criminal behavior. However, there is a common thread which leads us to the construction of this "criminological" knowledge and how we go about defining this type of behavior (Walklate, 2007).

Understanding the causes as well as the consequences of criminal behavior is not only for the purpose of criminology, it also has psychological sides to the issues which need to be studied (Turner, 2008). There has not been one sole caused which has been identified to cause these behaviors in society. Many studies have been committed in providing explanations for delinquency (Wester, Macdonald, & Lewis, 2008). With the study and deepening of knowledge of the causes of delinquent behavior, rehabilitation methods may be improved to prevent potential offenders from committing any future crimes. Further explanations as to why these people behave the way they do can help the Criminal Justice System from either preventing youth crime or intervening in it; some studies can link this type of destructive behavior to juvenile delinquency, later on leading to more serious crimes.

Question 3: 409 words

Mr. Galt's offence was a verbal threat, and no physical violence was seen. However his body language in pushing his way through the front of a public meeting may have been seen as provoking. He has no prior convictions, therefore does not seem to pose much of a threat. However, he is a political activist who had gone out of line. Because the crime took place during the night and inside a local pub, it would be assumed that the offender may have been intoxicated or mildly under the influence; if this is the case, then the sentence would slightly differ. Anyone who threatens physical harm unto another person, whether under the influence or not, should have a restraining order held against him.

Verbal threats are considered an assault if the threat is towards someone's physical harm through violence. Mr. Galt's threat was aimed towards the official's safety and thus considering him a threat to the public. Because Mr. Galt had no prior convictions, he will probably be tried lightly. However, considering the status of the person he has threatened, his sentence may be slightly more severe. If the threats of violence or bodily harm included actual touching, this would be considered battery, not just assault. Though, since Mr. Galt's offence just included threats of bodily harm, it is only assault. Threats of violence are illegal, as long as it reasonably causes the victim to apprehend any imminent harm. It can be difficult to have prosecuted, as the prosecution must rely on more than the mere words of the victim to support a conviction. Meaning if it is your word against their word, charges aren't likely to be pressed. Some jurisdictions have incorporated the definition of civil assault into the definition of the crime making it a criminal assault to intentionally place another person in "fear" of a harmful or offensive contact. "Fear" means merely apprehension - awareness rather than any emotional state. Although, since it was a public figure which he had attacked verbally, his sentence may be held slightly harsher than a simple restraining order, yet not as severe as five years imprisonment. I would charge Mr. Galt with a light fine and let him off with a warning, since it is his first offence, yet a restraining order would be appropriate. Given he does not do anything or approach the official any time within the next six months, he can be lifted of his restraining order.

Question 4: 448 words

The anti-poverty system is a range of options to eradicate poverty. There are many who believe that poverty is the reason for most crimes. The social disorganization theory believes that disorganized communities cause crimes because of informal social control. This is when social control breaks down and criminal cultures emerge. It is the lack of efficacy to fight crime and disorder. The concept of this theory is concerned with understanding the social ecology of a certain city (Cohn, et. al., 1998). Social ecologists drew parallels between how they believed living organisms maintained themselves and the maintenance of their social lives. This meant that in order to determine patterns of criminal behavior, theorists tried to understand patterns in the growth and development of the city. This theory was the first theory to consider the social origins of criminal behavior, as opposed to the individual's roots of crime (Cohn, et. al., 1998). I believe that the statement pertains to overcrowding in prisons, and making into a business, rather than focusing on the causes of why people are actually incarcerated. Privatizing a prison is when the government contracts a third party to confined inmates in a building which is not state or federal owned and run. The reasons for privatizing prisons are more economic. A reason to privatize prisons is in connection with the free market concept, which believes that service providers which can provide a quality service of prison with a competitive market price will survive. The privatization of prisons will also introduce disciplines and efficiency and directly solve the problem of over-crowding jails through the mechanisms of supply and demand. Also, privatized firms have cost reduction opportunities, which will help the design and building facilities. The government has a number of successful privatized services, these include education, health, sanitation; prison can be included as one of them. Lastly, privatized institutions are more flexible in treatments as compared to the law-bound public institutions. However, the privatization of prisons can have negative aspects. The responsibility of carrying out justice within the system is with the state, not privatized institutions. Also, because prisons are public institutions, they are open to public scrutiny and are more transparent. A privatized institution has little concern for the prisoners' rehabilitation process, unlike the state who wants to ensure public safety by making sure a prisoner is well and ready to re-enter society. Privatized prisons main objectives are to increase stakeholder profits, not to properly rehabilitate. Taxpayers will be shelling out money for both a privatized and a public prison, privatizing prison adds on a layer of expenses for the taxpayer.

Question 5: 406 words

Understanding the causes as well as the consequences of criminal behavior is not only for the purpose of criminology, it also has psychological sides to the issues which need to be studied (Turner, 2008). The Criminal Justice System focuses on placing offenders in jail and serving justice in society; the victims of the crime are most of the times being neglected. There has not been one sole caused which has been identified to cause these behaviors in society, however many studies have been committed in providing explanations for delinquency (Wester, Macdonald, & Lewis, 2008). Not a lot of studies focus on the victims of crimes. With the study and deepening of knowledge of the causes of delinquent behavior, rehabilitation methods may be improved to prevent potential offenders from committing any future crimes, though most efforts are seen in providing justice in society. Further explanations as to why these people behave… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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