France Haiti Latin America Italy and Germany Term Paper

Pages: 3 (883 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 0  ·  File: .docx  ·  Topic: Drama - World

Nation States

THE FORMATION of GERMAN and ITALIAN

NATION-STATES

By definition, a nation-state is generally considered as a nation with a sovereign government placed within clearly-defined geographical boundaries, such as Germany and Italy, while being inhabited by people who consider themselves as members of a single, unified entity. This is very closely related to nationalism or a sense of national consciousness based on the superiority of one nation set against another, along with an emphasis on the promotion of its specific culture and interests.

In the case of Germany, when the French Revolution exploded in July of 1789 with the storming of the Bastille, many German political leaders and intellectuals gave this event their undying approval and welcomed the French proclamation of a national constitution and a bill of rights for all the people of France regardless of their social status and position. However, within a few years, Germany's support for the French Revolution waned, especially when France invaded Germany in 1792 which led to the occupation of the German Rhineland in 1794.

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During this occupation, France found it necessary to split apart a number of small German states and with the Treaty of Basel of 1795, all German military activities against France can to an end. The kingdom of Prussia, composed of present-day Germany and part of northern Poland, was badly defeated at the Battle of Jena against France in 1806 which soon led to a sense of German national shame and humiliation. This situation then motivated the Prussian/German people and its leaders to begin a serious endeavor to reform many of its social, political and economic programs which hopefully would lead to a new sense of nationalism. The most important of these reformers, such as Wilhelm von Humboldt and Gerhard von Scharnhorst, greatly improved national laws, the educational system, government administration and all military organizations.

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One very important act by Scharnhorst was the introduction of the principles of economic competition; he also was responsible for doing away with the privileges accorded to the German nobility within the German/Prussian military system. Of course, all of these national reforms revitalized Germany/Prussia and allowed it to join Austria and Russia to defeat Napoleon Bonaparte at the Battle of Leipzig in late 1813.

However, Napoleon's defeat brought numerous changes to Germany/Prussia, such as improvements in public administration, the weakening of feudalism and a reduction in the power of the trade guilds, not to mention the replacement of traditional legal codes with the Napoleonic Codes. At this time, circa 1806 to 1820, many smaller states and free cities were incorporated into the German/Prussian confederation, and following the success of the Congress of Vienna in… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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"France Haiti Latin America Italy and Germany."  Essaytown.com.  June 27, 2007.  Accessed September 20, 2021.
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