Free Wireless Networks Term Paper

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[. . .] The push proxy gateway stores these messages until it receives a request from the WAP client for the delivery of messages. The WAP client will then download (pull) the messages from the push proxy gateway so the messages can be displayed on the users phone.

Larger networks, or those who have existing LAN networks, in a business or industrial setting, most often use WAP systems. Yet, some of the new free wireless systems have been created using WAP systems.

Satellite Systems

Satellite systems provide a unique way to connect communications networks using space vehicle(s) in orbit over the Earth. Satellites simply act as transport for communications much like cables, fiber optics or microwave systems that are the path between two communicators. Similar to cables that provide long distance communications, a satellite acts like a repeater to assure that the signal, video or voice communications that it is transporting remains as near to the original as possible. Repeaters in satellites take the weak signal it receives and restores it before passing back to the recipient. Satellites are unique for communications for many reasons. The start up costs for satellite communications is very high, however the benefits are extremely good. For example, if a satellite is placed in orbit over the earth, it is capable of providing a communication connection between any two points within it's view by simply having a transmitter and receiver at each of the two points (in the form of a satellite dish). The view of a typical satellite in orbit over the earth is 1/3 of the planet. As well, the multiple connections can be established. Depending on the capability of the satellite, thousands of paired connections can be established at one time between two points. The advantage of this over established point-to-point cable connections is a significant benefit of a satellite. A satellite in space is limited by its design as to how many signals it can receive and retransmit based on the number of "transponders" it holds. However, one of the biggest communications advantages of a satellite is that the number of communication devices on the ground that can receive the signal and use it is not limited. This makes satellites an ideal system for broadcast uses. Even a small satellite with only a few transponders can provide a significant service. Satellite radio systems are simple. A signal is transmitted to a satellite and the satellite, acting as a simple repeater re-transmits the signal. If listeners on the earth have a receiver, there is no limit to the number of customers that can receive the signal. For more than 30 years, satellites have been providing voice and data communication service around the globe; however, the cost for equipment and services has been very high. In 1997, the high cost of satellite equipment and services began to reduce dramatically. New high capacity satellites and digital technology allow for lower cost service and advanced messaging services. Early satellites used analog transmission. After the development of digital satellites, which offer more capacity, several more satellites were put into orbit, followed by the next-generation of low orbiting satellites. These new developments are rapidly bringing the cost of equipment down by over 75%. This diagram shows the different types of satellite communication systems. The GEO satellite system is primarily used for television broadcast services, as their satellites appear stationary above the Earth. MEO and LEO systems are used for mobile communications as they are located much closer to the Earth. However, these satellites continuously move relative to the surface of the Earth.

Harte, 2004, (http://www.wirelessdictionary.com/)

Satellites have a longer history in the technology industry than other types of wireless services yet because of the extreme and very recent reduction in cost the free wireless subsystem might be more likely to use satellite technology in the future.

With the types of technology now explained and the modes of transmission more clear issues associated with legality and security will no be discussed. Though the main obstacle to free wireless servers is of coarse the initial cost of the technology needed to develop and implement the systems another substantial obstacle is legality. Laws related to technology are constantly changing and as a general statement the laws in the United States are often focused open profit protection. It is for this reason that restrictions of free access networks have occurred. The standard answer for the government is that if there is a new market, opened by technology, then it should be recognized as just that a market, to be guarded and given access to based on the ability to profit from it.

Banks 585) Additionally the system also prefers to make certain that interference will not occur that might cause infighting or inferior services to the user.

The federal communications commission (FCC) is a government agency of the United States that establishes and enforces laws and regulations regarding interstate radio and wired communications services. The agency was established by the Communications Act of 1934. The FCC must certify (FCC type approval) radio and computer equipment before it can be sold in the United States. ((Harte, 2004, (http://www.wirelessdictionary.com/)

The FCC has a great deal of power over the technology that is distributed within the United States and often offers a significant obstacle for new technology as proof of the legality of the lack of infringement upon other technologies and also many other factors must be determined before the right is given for the product to be produced and sold. Additionally, the FCC makes certain that individuals or groups do not infringe on the rights of other users through sharing space on the wired and certainly eventually the wireless subsystems of telecommunications. In addition the FCC also makes sure that intellectual property rights are not infringed upon in the making of technology.

Intellectual Property Rights (IPR): Legal rights that protect the innovations or creative content of proprietary to an individual, group or company. IPR is commonly associated with patent rights although it also applies to copyright and trademarks.

Blocking IPR: An intellectual property right (IPR), patent, copyright or other right proprietary to an individual, group or company, which precludes someone else from making, using or selling that invention.

Within these functions the FCC can make or break and organization, manufacturer or in this case the developer of a free wireless access project. The FCCs main function is to license the use of certain radio or frequency waves to determine who is able to use such air space. Within the United States regulations on technology are limited, to serve market interests, yet the power of the FCC is substantial.

The FCC employs a relatively relaxed regulatory regime regarding the use of commercial airwaves for mobile communications. Spectrum licenses include only limited technical specifications, and carriers are generally free to offer whatever services they wish. Licenses in the United States are also made on a smaller regional level than in other countries. Depending upon how the FCC decides to license a set of spectrum, licenses may be awarded on a national level or by Major Trading Area ("MTA"), Basic Trading Area ("BTA"), Metropolitan Statistical Area ("MSA"), Rural Service Area ("RSA"), Major Economic Area ("MEA"), or Regional Economic Area Group ("REAG").(75) This policy was selected as a means to increase competition and innovation in the telecommunications market. It has also served to fragment the mobile telecommunications market, where relatively few standards exist and customers face compatibility problems and high roaming fees. The WTB currently distributes spectrum through the use of "electronic simultaneous multiple-round auctions"(76);

(Banks 585)

Though many of these issues are with regards to wireless telephone use, the systems in place for licensing of wireless Internet services are relatively the same. Challenges to the free wireless Internet will begin here. The distribution of technology on the other hand is a strong determining factor of a long life expectancy for internet wireless services and hopefully for free wireless systems.

Overview of the United States

Population (1999) 276.2 million

GDP (1998) $8,759.9 billion

Telephone Lines (1998) 179.8 million

Telephone Lines per 100 Inhabitants 66.10

Mobile Subscribers (1999) 86.0 million

% Digital (1998) 28.9

Mobile Subscribers per 100 Inhabitants 31.15

Personal Computers 124.0 million

Personal Computers per 100 Inhabitants 45.58

Internet Users 110.0 million

Internet Users per 100 Inhabitants 39.82

Source: The International Telecommunications Union.

Banks 585)

Though in a market economy the challenges to free services are great. As with all new technology there is a demand for access from those who wish not to pay high market premiums for the service. This has given birth to a movement call the war drivers, a group of individuals attempting to map the existence of wireless internet services all over the country.

War driving took root with the development of WiFi - wireless fidelity - an inexpensive, short-range technology that has been proliferating for 18 months.

WiFi lets several computers share a single high-speed Internet connection. Consumers are installing wireless networks in homes… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Free Wireless Networks.  (2004, October 30).  Retrieved February 22, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/free-wireless-networks-since/3400950

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