Term Paper: Freud Versus Rogers

Pages: 5 (1698 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 5  ·  Level: Doctorate  ·  Topic: Psychology  ·  Buy This Paper

Freud vs. Rogers

The world of psychology is filled with various theories and ideas for treating a host of conditions. Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers are two critical thinkers who set the foundation for other schools of thought. To fully understand their contributions requires examining: the main ideas of each theory, analyzing the strengths / weaknesses and which one is the most helpful in treating different conditions. Once this takes place is when, the effectiveness of each theory will be discussed and the one that is the most successful in a clinical setting.

Two of the most influential thinkers in modern psychology are Freud and Rogers. This is because, both presented theories that helped to provide a foundation for understanding human behavior. However, despite the success and popularity of these theories, there have been criticisms about what each one is lacking. This is from other research that is showing how they can provide a basic foundation for comprehending select aspects of individual thoughts. Yet, they do not explain the main motivations behind specific conditions. From a clinical standpoint, these ideas need to be examined carefully to determine how beneficial they are in treating various psychological disorders. This will be accomplished by looking at: the main ideas of each theory, analyzing the strengths / weaknesses and which one is the most helpful in treating different conditions. Together, these elements will offer specific insights as to what philosophy is the most effective in a clinical setting. (Greene, 2009, pp. 31 -- 58)

The main principles of psychoanalysis and person-centered theory

Sigmund Freud believed that every thought a person has is based upon some kind of unconscious desire to express a variety of feelings and emotions on a select level. The problem is that society will often limit how and when these ideas are expressed. As a result, the majority of these thoughts will be unleashed in a person's dreams. During the process of doing this, the mind will focus on three different areas to include: the id, ego and superego. The id is primitive feelings that the mind will express at select times to include: unchecked urges, impulses, desires and wish fulfillment. The ego is concerned about rational thoughts / actions to include: morals and a sense of self-awareness. The superego is designed to enforce the moral codes that are established by the ego. When someone is dreaming, they will be able to act out some of their most primal thoughts. Once the person awakens, is the point that the superego will take over again. In situations, where someone does not recall a dream, this is an indication that the superego is in control during times of rest. (Freud, 2007, pp. 7 -- 55) (Greene, 2009, pp. 31 -- 58)

To interpret different dreams Freud classified them into five different categories to include: displacement, projection, symbolization, condensation and rationalization. Displacement is the desire to have an object or person. This occurs with the individual having something similar. Projection is when the wants and desires are discussed openly with another person. Socialization is those repressed desires that are acting out metaphorically. Condensation occurs the moment a person will hide their feelings and desires to contradict their true motives to the other person. Rational is when the various ideas are organized into a basic framework of a dream. These different elements will help psychotherapists to understand what factors are influencing subconscious thoughts. (Freud, 2007, pp. 7 -- 55) (Greene, 2009, pp. 31 -- 58)

When it comes to the development of personality, Freud believes that there are different stages everyone will go through during the course of their lives. These include: oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital. The oral stage takes place from birth to age 2. This is when the individual will explore the world using their mouth. During these times, the person will have their basic everyday needs met by their mother. If at any point they feel that this was not addressed is when the individual will harbor specific traits to address these issues. The anal stage is when the person is learning to control their bodily functions. This occurs from the ages of 2 to 3. The phallic stage takes place between: 3 and 5, as the individual will determine their sense of sexuality. From the age of 5 to 11, is what is known as the latency periods. This is when there will be little to no observable development in the child. The genital stage starts at age 12 and lasts until 18. During this period, there is a renewed interest in sexuality. (Freud, 2007, pp. 7 -- 55) (Greene, 2009, pp. 31 -- 58)

In any one of these stages, an unmet basic need will cause the person to have select personality hang ups in the future. During the course of evaluating dreams, is when these different issues will be brought to the forefront. This helps therapists to determine what factors are impacting their personality (which will have an effect on psychotherapy options). (Freud, 2007, pp. 7 -- 55) (Greene, 2009, pp. 31 -- 58)

Carl Rogers believed that everyone is basically good. This is because evolution has been having an impact on teaching everyone the tastes and senses that are valued the most through organismic valuing. This helps to determine the direction of someone's behavior by providing a motivation to embrace particular attributes. During this process, there are different stages that the person will go through to include: positive regard, positive self-regard and real self. Positive regard is when there is a clear desire to move towards specific feelings to include: love, affection, attention and nurturing. (Engler, 2008, pp. 347 -- 404) (Greene, 2009, pp. 31 -- 58)

Positive self-regard is when the positive regard from others will establish the views that the individual will have of themselves. During this process, there will be the development of: the self-esteem, self-worth and positive self-image. The way that everyone is able to learn is through the values that are instilled upon us by: society, parents, teachers and other adults. When specific actions are deemed as favorable, there will be a change in the perceptions of the individual (i.e. conditional positive regard). This is the point that there will be a transition in how everyone sees themselves based upon (conditional positive self-regard). To live up to these higher standards is when the person will begin changing how they are acting towards a host of stimuli. (Engler, 2008, pp. 347 -- 404) (Greene, 2009, pp. 31 -- 58)

In a clinical setting, the therapist would take what is known as the client centered approach. This is when they will listen and encourage them to discuss their thoughts (which: sets the direction of therapy). During this process, the mental health professional will make suggestions that will steer the thoughts of the individual in more empowering directions on their own. (Engler, 2008, pp. 347 -- 404) (Greene, 2009, pp. 31 -- 58)

The strengths and weaknesses of both theories

The biggest strengths of Freud's theory, is that it is providing a basic background of understanding specific areas that could impact behavior. This helps to explain how certain thoughts, actions and events could have an effect upon individual actions. During the process of working with patients, is when these ideas will assist mental health professionals in understanding those factors that are influencing these views. (Rider, 2012, pp. 39 -- 40) (Greene, 2009, pp. 31 -- 58)

The biggest weakness with Freud's ideas is that he is not taking into account other aspects of human motivation. This is problematic, due to the fact that he is preoccupied with sex and dreams vs. specific stimuli that could impact on these views. At the same time, Freud is taking a one size fits all approach in understand… [END OF PREVIEW]

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