Term Paper: Function of Homeostasis in Human

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[. . .] Sweat glands form sweat that pulls out heat from the body to evaporate it. Urinary is whereby kidneys eliminates urine that is a mixture of urea, salts, and water. Thus kidney is an organ essential to body homeostasis. (Unit IV Homeostasis) Many physiological parameters, like blood glucose and body temperature, are exactly controlled by a homeostatic mechanism. Control of a physiological event normally takes place through a reaction mechanism. (Lecture Information) Harmful reactions are a self-control method by which systems and conditions of the body are regulated. (Chapter 1 Body Organization) Homeostatic mechanisms find divergence from preferred conditions. The importance of a parameter i.e., blood pressure is evaluated to a set point i.e., 100 mm Hg and body takes steps to lessen divergence and bring back the normal conditions. (Lecture 21: Control of Physiological Functions: Homeostasis)

A case of a homeostatic mechanism can be explained by the body's response to a toxin that produces anemia and hypoxia. Erythropoiesis is regulated mainly by the hormone, erythropoietin. Hypoxia counteracts with the heme protein that indicates the kidney to form erythropoietin. This, consecutively, arouses the bone marrow to raise red blood cells and hemoglobin, increasing the capacity of the blood to carry oxygen and thus increase the tissue oxygen levels in the blood and other tissues. This increase in tissue oxygen levels operates to repress more erythropoietin synthesis. In this case, it can be seen that cells and chemicals counteract to make alterations that can either trouble homeostasis or reinstate homeostasis. In this case, toxins that harm the kidney can hinder with formation of erythropoietin or toxins that harm the bone marrow can avoid the creation of red blood cells. This hinders with the homeostatic mechanism explained leading to anemia. (Homeostasis:Toxiocology Tutor III) Harmful reactions are more frequent and are the reaction of the system in a direction contrary to the change that set it in motion. The consequence of harmful reaction is to bring a divergence in a physiological event back into line. On the other hand, helpful feedback is a reaction, which further improves the change that set it in motion. (Lecture Information) In helpful feedback, the reaction is to intensify the change in the variable. This has a threatening effect and does not end in homeostasis. Helpful feedback is rare in spontaneously happening systems than harmful feedback, but it has its own uses. For instance, in nerves, an upper limit electric potential activates the production of a much larger action potential. (Homeostasis: Biology Daily)

On the basis of feedback system information is given to the control center, which leads the organ to react appropriately. Two main control centers are brain of the nervous system and glands of the endocrine system. Many factors like temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, water balance, blood sugar levels and detoxification must be controlled. (Unit IV Homeostasis) Feedback systems must have sensors to determine parameter being controlled, i.e., pressure sensors in the aorta, carotid sinus and atria. Indications must be given to a control center, i.e., the cardiovascular control center in the medulla where the divergence from preferred values is assessed. Normally indications from many parts of the body are evaluated. If the calculated values vary from the set points then hints are given to effectors to bring the values back to the exact levels to bring the blood pressure back, for instance, you might raise the heart rate, or contract arteries. The main Control Systems in the Body are the Nervous and Endocrine Systems. To control homeostasis the body makes use of an electrical system and a chemical system. The nervous system is normally quicker than the endocrine system and both systems act mostly routinely, but there is some intentional control over the nervous system. The Nervous System utilizes Electrical Transmission of Signals like a telephone for the meaning to be conveyed to where the axon makes connections. If the spinal cord is incised above the position of a spinal reflex, the reflex will still function and instruction from the brain is not needed. But, the brain does control the sensitivity of reflexes and they are frequently more energetic in paraplegics. (Lecture 21: Control of Physiological Functions: Homeostasis)

Homeostatic constancy is beneficial in the area of osmoregulation, temperature-control, and the control of blood sugar levels. It is a dreadful plague for the millions of people bothered with acute low mood or high anxiety. Sufferers of the hedonic treadmill cannot flee their quandary by natural methods. Usually, their unavailing fight to lessen their suffering or discover permanent contentment no more retunes the dial of their emotional thermostat than running on a real-life treadmill lastingly retunes the bodily thermostat. It simply does not function. Among a small social group of African hominids an inclination to constant anxiety or depression was often fit for low-ranking persons. Depression and melancholy tended to increase the complete health of their DNA. Anxious mothers tended to lose less progeny to predators than happy-go-lucky optimists. The global occurrence of a terrible range of depressive sickness seems to be the inherited punishment we pay as individuals for the benefits of group living on the African savannah. Isolates tend to get consumed and outbreed. It is improbable that potential parents will wish to maintain and reconstruct such horrible states of awareness indefinitely in the new reproductive age of designer babies. Selection pressure will support the widening of a very varying set of heritable fitness-enhancing traits. Post-humans may not have helpful reaction sphere for happiness, but the homeostatic mechanisms endorsing the mental health of our children will be far better planned than our own. Their molecular machinery is liable to instruct a far higher hedonic set point of emotional health. (Walter Cannon (1871-1945): Homeostatis)

The law of homeostasis is the plain opinion that life, though continuously varying and changing, is at the same time very steady, dependable, and foreseeable. This contradiction can create perplexity and aggravation in knowing the problems concerned with nutrition and health. Homeostasis refers to the visible fact that something other than us is accountable for preserving, regulating, instigating and biomodulating the many physiological mechanisms of cells, organs, and systems of the human body. And, it also refers to the visible phenomenon that nothing other than us is eventually accountable for correctly or offensively nurturing the many physiological mechanisms of our body. Homeostasis builds our biological uniqueness. This implies that though each and every one of us is exclusive, we are concurrently managed and regulated by the same biological code. Realizing and using the principle of homeostasis in a way improves our wish for greater health and happiness, and to avoid the indications of sickness. Disease thus comes down to these two vital understanding: that nothing is neutral and all are relatively flattering or abusive. (Homeostasis: www.celltech.com)

Homeostasis contains the idea of biological individuality and biomodulation. Stability and accord is obvious in our bodies by self-regulating, renewing, correcting, and healing actions. The meaning for nothing is neutral is that whatever we eat and drink is flattering or abusive to homeostasis. Hence the human body's capacity to produce, control, mend, and safe guard itself when given natural, high quality, nutrition is called homeostasis. The clandestine is to concentrate on additional nutritional choices and shun insults and toxins in the rest of our diet and lifestyle. Additional biomodulators are nutritional substances that raise the synergy of the body, assisting in everything to work healthier, more efficiently, and closer to our original design. (Homeostasis: www.celltech.com)

References

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Homeostasis: Biology Daily. Retrieved from http://www.biologydaily.com/biology/Homeostasis Accessed on 20 April, 2005

Homeostasis {hohm-ee-oh-stay'-sis} Penn Valley Community College. Retrieved from http://www.kcmetro.cc.mo.us/pennvalley/biology/lewis/homeo.htm Accessed on 20 April, 2005

Homeostasis. 20 June 2004. Retrieved from http://www.biologymad.com/master.html?http://www.biologymad.com/Homeostasis/Homeostasis.htm Accessed on 20 April, 2005

Homeostasis. Retrieved from http://www.celltech.com/BetterNutrition/homeostasis.asp

Accessed on 20 April, 2005

Homeostasis. Retrieved from http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0008030.html Accessed on 20 April, 2005

Homeostasis: Toxiocology Tutor III. Retrieved from http://www.sis.nlm.nih.gov/ToxTutor/Tox3/a21.htm#top Accessed on 20 April, 2005

Lecture 21: Control of Physiological Functions: Homeostasis. Retrieved from http://members.aol.com/Bio50/LecNotes/lecnot21.html Accessed on 20 April, 2005

Lecture Information. Retrieved from http://www.colorado.edu/epob/epob1220lynch/01homeo.html Accessed on 20 April, 2005

Naturopathy. Retrieved from http://www.betterhealthchannel.com.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Naturopathy?OpenDocument Accessed on 20 April, 2005

Concepts and Themes of Human Physiology. Spring, 2005. Retrieved from http://www.wsu.edu/~biol251/topic1.pdf Accessed on 20 April, 2005

Unit IV Homeostasis. Retrieved from http://www.gonzaga.k12.nf.ca/academics/science/sci_page/biology/homeostasis_notes.htm Accessed on 20 April, 2005

Walter Cannon (1871-1945): Homeostasis. Retrieved from http://www.wireheading.com/homeostasis.html Accessed on 20 April, 2005

Winkler, John. Chapter 1 Body Organization. Human Anatomy and Physiology: Team Project. 2004/05. Retrieved from http://fulton.edzone.net/winkler/team2/chapter01/chapter01.html Accessed on 20 April, 2005 [END OF PREVIEW]

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