Functionalism Is. What Advantage Term Paper

Pages: 7 (2978 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 16  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Black Studies - Philosophy

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According to this principle, two things are one and the same if there is no way of informing them to be separate. For instance, let x and y are two things, then they are indistinguishable if and only if any predicate possessed by x is also possessed by y and vice versa. Simply put, if an object appears like a duck, strolls like a duck, and quacks like a duck, and then it is a duck. (Identity of indiscernibles)

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According to Leibniz's law, all the properties of A and B. should be same in order for them to be one and the same thing. On the other hand, A and B. cannot be one and the same thing if they have dissimilar properties. Also if A does not have some property of B, we can deduce that A and B. are not the same thing. One example is as follows. Let us assume we see through the window Superman is flying. We would like to know how Superman is. At the time we see Superman flying through window, we also see our friend Jimmy Olson standing nearby. We can understand this situation like this: Superman is flying outside the window; Jimmy Olson is not flying outside the window, he is standing very near to me; So Superman has a property that Jimmy Olson do not have; hence Superman is not Jimmy Olson. Leibniz's Law is used by philosophers to contend for dualism, in a range of ways. They find out some property that our brains and bodies lack but our minds have, or vice versa. They are able to show that our minds cannot be the same thing as our brains or bodies when they use Leibniz's Law along with other laws. (Leibniz's Law) Leibniz's Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles can be used to define 'a priori' from the nature of the notion of 'identity'. This shows that the identity theory has links with Leibniz's Principle. (Identity Theories)

6. Describe Frank Jackson's Knowledge Argument. What is its point?

TOPIC: Term Paper on Functionalism Is. What Advantage Does Assignment

Frank Jackson's Knowledge argument attempts to set up participation of non-physical properties in deliberate experience. It is based on the notion that even if someone has complete physical knowledge about another alert being, yet he may not have knowledge about how it feels to have the experiences of that being. One of the most talked about arguments against physicalism is this Franck Jackson's Knowledge argument. (Qualia: The Knowledge Argument) We can understand Jackson argument as follows. Let us visualize a woman named Mary who is brought up from birth in a white and black room. All through her life in this colorless environment, Mary reads many black and white books and studies all the laws of physics. As time goes by, Mary becomes a specialist in neuro-physiology and of the practical roles that brain states participate in the process of color vision. Mary's knowledge of the physical and functional organization of the brain becomes total to the point that there is absolutely nothing that she does not know. But, as per Jackson, even with her total physical knowledge of the brain, Mary does not know the whole thing there is to know about the brain because she does not know what it color actually is. Jackson considers that Mary would learn something new about the world if she leaves her room for the first time and faces her first color. (The Problem of Qualia)

This is why Jackson asserts that the physical picture of the brain does not confine the whole thing there is to know about the mind. Something is left out in the physical picture. The logical conclusion is that the mind or the physical story of the brain is untrue. Though Mary understood all physical facts about the world, yet she did not know the whole thing about the world. Definitely, Jackson's knowledge argument is instinctive. The case point is that Mary would learn something new about the way the world is the moment she leaves her room. This knowledge, however, could not be envisaged by her total physical knowledge of the brain. In order to show that physical nature of the mind is untrue, the Knowledge argument is a very powerful thought experiment. (The Problem of Qualia) Frank Jackson's Knowledge Argument states that if Fred can experience an extra 'basic' color then it would plainly be beyond the range of other human minds to learn from physical information what his subjective color experience is like, even if the information is all-inclusive. (Frank Jackson's knowledge Argument)

7. What is the Turing Test? Outline two objections to the test and explain how Turing addresses them.

The Turing test refers to a test scheme for a machine's capability to execute human-like conversation. Alan Turing explained this test in 1950. This test is carried out as follows. A human evaluator conducts a natural language conversation with a human being and with a machine; the machine is said to qualify the test if the evaluator cannot unfailingly tell which is which. (The Turing Test: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) Lady Lovelace in her memoir on Babbage's Analytical Engine raised one of the most famous oppositions to the assertion that there can be thinking machines. According to Turing, the Analytical Engine cannot create anything, as it is not human; it can do what we wanted it to do. According to Turing, one way to react to these challenges is to ask whether we can ever do anything actually new. In a deterministic universe, there is a feeling that nothing actually new occurs; however, the view of deterministic universe is questioned by proceedings that happen within it. (The Turing Test: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Turing shows many ways in which even digital computers do things that take us by astonishment; more needs to be said to make obvious precisely what the nature of this suggestion is. One more opposition was the 'Heads in the Sand' Objection. Following consequence will arise if there were thinking machines: we would drop the top grounds for thinking that we are better than all other things in the universe; the likelihood that we might be displaced by machines would become a real concern; the likelihood that we might be conquered by machines would also become a real concern. According to Turing, we have the articulations of many worries about what might follow if there were thinking machines and not a case against the assertion that machines can think Someone will find motives for dropping the project of trying to build thinking machines if he thinks about these fears critically and is convinced that it is in fact feasible for us to build thinking machines. (The Turing Test: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

References

Chinese room -An argument forwarded by John Searle. Retrieved from http://www.artsci.wustl.edu/~philos/MindDict/chineseroom.html Accessed on 19 May, 2005

Chinese Room Argument. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/chinese-room / Accessed on 19 May, 2005

Dualism (philosophy of mind). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dualistic_interactionism Accessed on 19 May, 2005

Folk Psychology as a Theory. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/folkpsych-theory / Accessed on 19 May, 2005

Folk Psychology. Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2002 Retrieved from http://www.cofc.edu/~nichols/FolkPsychologyFinal.htm Accessed on 19 May, 2005

Functionalism. Retrieved from http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/philo/faculty/block/papers/functionalism.html Accessed on 19 May, 2005

Frank Jackson's knowledge Argument. Retrieved from http://www.academicdb.com/frank_jackson_s_knowledge_argument_10239 / Accessed on 19 May, 2005

Identity of indiscernibles. Retrieved from http://www.algebra.com/algebra/about/history/Leibniz%2527s-law.wikipedia Accessed on 19 May, 2005

Identity Theories. Retrieved from http://host.uniroma3.it/progetti/kant/field/mbit.htmIs Folk Psychology a Theory? Retrieved from http://www.bluejoh.com/dungeon/archives/000422.php Accessed on 19 May, 2005

Leibniz's Law. Retrieved from http://www.princeton.edu/~jimpryor/courses/intro/notes/leibniz1.html Accessed on 19 May, 2005

Qualia: The Knowledge Argument. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/qualia-knowledge / Accessed on 19 May, 2005

Silby, Brent.The Problem of Qualia. 1998. Retrieved from http://www.def-logic.com/articles/silby014.html Accessed on 19 May, 2005

The Turing Test. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/turing-test/#2 Accessed on 19 May, 2005

Turing test. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turing_test Accessed on 19 May, 2005

The Identity Theory of Mind. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mind-identity/#Fun Accessed on 19 May, 2005

The Mind-Body problem. Retrieved from http://human-nature.com/rmyoung/papers/pap102.doc Accessed on 19 May, 2005 [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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