Essay: Functions of an Information System

Pages: 10 (3167 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 0  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Business  ·  Buy This Paper

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] By staying involved in all of the aspects of a company and making sure that everyone on the team is aware of potential issues, it is possible to minimize the internal threats (Armstrong, 2006). However, it is not possible to eliminate them completely.

Armstrong. M. (2006). A handbook of human resource management practice (10th ed.). London: Kogan Page.

6. Why do social networks and cloud computing increase IT security risks? How can those risks be reduced?

When a person uses a social network or a company uses cloud computing, information is being placed into a virtual area where more people can get access to it (White & Long, 2010). That does not mean that it is simply sitting out there unprotected, but that there is more opportunity for a person to break through the protection that is offered and get access to the information that a person or company wants to keep private. There have been a number of cases where the social media accounts of prominent people and companies have been hacked (White & Long, 2010). In some cases that is used to post information and pretend to be the company or person. In other cases, the goal is to hack into the account and see if there is information there that can be used to hack into other accounts or collect data that should be kept private (White & Long, 2010). That data can then be misused, and can cause harm to the person or the company that was attempting to protect it.

With cloud computing, the risk is even more significant. There is data that belongs to the company, and that is being passed from one person or department to another. It is stored in the cloud, and a hacker who can get into that cloud can get into that data (White & Long, 2010). Often, the cloud is where customer information is stored, included personal information such as credit card numbers. If these are hacked, it can be very harmful to the people whose information was compromised and to the reputation of the company itself (White & Long, 2010). Those who work in IT must do all they can to protect the information in the cloud, but there are still security risks to storing and transferring information in this way.

White, G., & Long, J. (2010). Global information security factors. International Journal of Information Security and Privacy (IJISP), 4(2), 49-60.

7. Implementing security programs raises many ethical issues. Identify two of these ethical issues.

There are a number of ethical issues that are raised by implementing security programs. Two of these include the lack of trust that may be fostered between the company and the employees, and the right to privacy that employees have and may feel is being violated (Anderson, 2001). When a company that has not had a number of security programs begins to implement them, employees start to wonder why that is the case. Some of them may become suspicious that the company does not trust them, or they may start wondering if they can trust the company (Anderson, 2001). Both of those are serious issues that companies and employees have to deal with, as they can affect the way employees commit to a company and also the way a company treats its employees. If a company is going to be changing the way it handles its security, it should be upfront and transparent about that, so employees have time to adjust to the differences (Anderson, 2001).

A second ethical issue that is very important when security programs are implemented is that employees may feel that their right to privacy is being violated by the company (Anderson, 2001). If they were previously allowed to do certain things that they will now be banned from doing, or if the security changes will give management access to the employees' computers, email, and files, a number of employees could take issue with that. Email, especially, has been argued as to whether it is protected and private even when it is a company email address and on company computers (Anderson, 2001). With that type of argument taking place, it is vital that companies address security issues carefully.

Anderson, R.J. (2001). Security engineering: A guide to building dependable distributed systems. NY: Wiley.

8. List and define 4 of the basic types of e-business transactions. Explain.

E-business transactions include Business to Consumer (B2C), Business to Employee (B2E), Business to Business (B2B), and Consumer to Consumer (C2C). The B2C model is among the most common, as it is the model that is used by the vast majority of companies (Beynon-Davies, 2004). Consumers go online, and they find a company and purchase something from it. The act of the company selling a good or service to a consumer creates a B2C transaction. This can be seen for any company, big or small, and any consumer. A consumer is defined as an individual, since a business selling goods or services to another business falls into the B2B category and is not considered to be the same thing. A B2B transaction does include one business that is technically the consumer, since it is purchasing a good or service, but its status as a business causes the transaction to be considered differently, and is an important designation (Beynon-Davies, 2004).

The B2E and C2C transactions are less common. In a B2E transaction, the business sells goods or services to the employee, or it provides the employee with the ability to buy goods and services for his or her job (Beynon-Davies, 2004). A C2C transaction is one in which there, technically, is no business involved. For example, when a person buys something from another person through an online auction site, this is a C2C transaction. One person bought something electronically from another person, and there was no business (i.e. company) involved in the transaction. These kinds of transactions are becoming more common with the advent of more auction sites and more people selling items online (Beynon-Davies, 2004). It become a type of virtual yard sale, but has gained popularity and taken some business away from companies that also sell online.

Beynon-Davies, P. (2004). E-business. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

9. Identify and explain the three major types of BI. Explain data mining. List three characteristics or objectives of data mining.

There are three major types of BI (business intelligence). These are basic querying and reporting, business analysis, and data mining (Rud, 2009). Each one of these can be very valuable, depending on the context in which they are used. For the basic querying and reporting, a company is looking for what happened in a particular scenario (Rud, 2009). Whatever happened has already taken place, but the company is looking for information about it in order to either recreate it or stop it from happening again, depending on the value it had to the company. Business analysis is different, in that it is used to tell what happened and also address why it happened (Rud, 2009). For companies that want to really understand issues within the company and the marketplace, this is the right choice. Finally, data mining is more of a speculative tool, in order to tell the company what might happen, based on the information found in the data collected (Rud, 2009).

Data mining is the discovering of patterns in large sets of data (Rud, 2009). These patterns can then be used to predict what may take place in the future. It has three main characteristics or objectives, which are finding patterns in large volumes of data, helping to manage an organization more efficiently, and forecasting what will take place in the future based on the data that was collected (Rud, 2009). Often, large volumes of historical data are used for this if that data is available, in order to improve accuracy. If that level of data is not available, the volume of available data that is used can affect how accurate the predictions of data mining actually are (Rud, 2009).

Rud, O. (2009). Business intelligence success factors: Tools for aligning your business in the global economy. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.

10. What are the four main points of IT strategic plans? Define them.

The four main points of IT strategic plans are the mission statement, the SWOT analysis, the list of actions to be prioritized, and the "road maps" that are used to examine and readjust the strategic plan in the future (Bradford & Duncan, 2000). The mission statement is a very important part of the plan, because it is the basic definition of what the company stands for and where it is headed in the future. Without it, IT cannot plan for continued structure and development, which can cause the company to stagnate (Bradford & Duncan, 2000). The SWOT analysis comes… [END OF PREVIEW]

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