Term Paper: Future Leader

Pages: 10 (2665 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 6  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Leadership  ·  Buy This Paper


[. . .] Leaders will need to learn to demonstrate competencies to make the best decisions given these events, conditions, and crises. To make the best decisions, leaders and their organizations will need to be able to learn efficiently and effectively, collaborate, coordinate, share information, and create knowledge more readily. Diffusion of advanced technology is essential to enabling Network-Centric principles in a true learning environment.

The potential for crisis consequences of epic proportion makes business and military executive competency a serious social concern. The lack of essential military competencies for anticipating the 1941 Pearl Harbor attack or the September 11, 2001 attacks raised national security uncertainties and contributed to poor executive decisions (Anonymous, 2003). Also in 2001, poor communications among executives and ethical issues led to devastating shareholder consequences at Enron and WorldCom. That is why having appropriate leader competencies is essential to identify crises, transform warning signals into knowledge, and to make good decisions resulting in positive outcomes.

When the military lacks essential military executive competencies, the crisis consequence can be lost national freedoms, lost national treasures, and unacceptable foreign influence on America's way of life (Bush, 2006; Heinze, 2006). In 2001,government and military executives failed to consider warning signals and issues of terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon (9/11 Commission, 2005).Continuous environmental scanning for warning signals was not the responsibility of anyone executive leader. Lacking unity of effort, information sharing should have been a critical requirement across dozens of government and military agencies; information sharing did not occur in an effective manner. The consequences resulted in nearly three thousand deaths and over a trillion dollars in lost economic power.

When business lacks essential executive competencies, the crisis consequence can be lost market share, revenue, and profit for even strongly-established organizations and termination for the marginal organizations. Trained ethical and moral leaders can guide business organizations through difficult crises while building relationships with customers, shareholders, and stakeholders. Business executives who know how to navigate government regulations and comply with Sarbanes-Oxley requirements can avoid crisis. Well-trained business executives abiding by business, technical, and leadership principles can also avoid crisis.

Business and military executives confront different situational requirements, rules, and the consequences. Executives can influence their situations by applying essential competencies at the right time and place. Business executives are concerned with the survival of their business and the financial success of their shareholders. Military executives are concerned with the survival of their commands and the accomplishment of national objectives of freedom, peace, and national security. Business and military executives have different governing rules and different visions, but their collective competency knowledge may be sharable to the advantage of both.

Current and Future Decision-Making and Variable Influences

In the historical overview, Scientific Management and Network-Centric paradigms' general effects on executive decision-making, crises, competencies, and consequences were presented. In this section, Network-Centric dominance will be discussed more specifically using the decision-making, crisis, competency, and consequence framework. Alberts and Hayes suggested in the post-September 11, 2001 timeframe, the trend toward Network-Centric dominance continued with technology as a primary change enabler. Denning (2007) suggested Scientific Management would not respond effectively to 2015-422025 chaotic crises although some leaders would continue to try to use this outmoded paradigm.

Frederick Taylor (1947) influenced American military and business decision making by introducing Scientific Management principles highlighted by a top-down, hierarchical, autocratic power structure. Taylor introduced an organizational high efficiency concept based on functional time-motion studies. Taylor, a successful mechanical engineer, advocated centralized planning as well as knowledge hoarding and exclusive executive decision-making authority. In a hierarchical organization, data flows upward from lower levels of functional management to higher. Centralized decisions are made based primarily on owner prosperity criteria and rewards to employees. Scientific Management principles made American business efficiency and profitability the world's envy. Principles also guided the U.S. military to become highly efficient in tactics and attrition warfare. Taylor did not address whether a business could remain solvent when challenged by innovative

Several tragic events demonstrated Scientific Management's organizational inadequacy in making timely crisis decisions. Scientific Management is still influential among some business and military leaders and organizations. Denning (2007) pointed out that Scientific Management methods are still useful in solving systematic problems, but not in solving chaotic and adaptive problems that often lead to crisis. Others implied that competitors will continue to exploit poor information flow, slow decision-making, and lack of innovation in exploiting competitive advantages.


In concluding the above discussion the leaders of future organization will have to face more challenges and crisis that the currently leaders are facing. As the technology advances and markets will be vast there will be challenges for the leaders to manage and adopt to fastly occurring changes. To cope with future challenges, leaders will need competencies and fast decision making ability according the situation.

Beginning in the second decade of the 21st century, executive decision-makers who do not have the leadership competencies necessary to appropriately respond to human-induced and naturally occurring crises will adversely affect the lives and livelihood of tens of millions of people within hours.

The systematic elimination of the most consequential threats due to low probability as advocated in risk management theories gives a false sense of security to organizations (Bracken, 2008). Crises will occur and they likely will come from outside the managed risk areas. Lack of preparation for the worst case is justified by flawed risk management assumptions and resource misallocation. At the strategic thinking level, executives should use risk management with great caution.

Executives should develop their organizations into learning organizations to achieve adaptive capacity in order to respond to changing situations. Rogers (2003) suggested as technological and organizational change increased, new executive leader competencies would be needed. Competencies could be based on specific crisis or cumulative multiple crises affect. Some articles mentioned addressing current and past crises with new technology or new leader competencies, but not 2015-2025 crises.


Allen, L. (2000). Competencies that count: Strategies for assessing high performance skills. Lab working paper No. 2 (Vol. TM 032-324). Providence, RI: Brown University.

Anonymous. (2003). Recognizing the symptoms of reckless leadership. Harvard Business Review, 81(10), 65.

Bracken, P. (2008). Futurizing business education. The Futurist, July-August, 38-42.

Bush, G. (Ed.). (2006). President's state of the union address. Washington, DC: White House

Denning, P. (2007). Mastering the mess. Communications of the ACM, 50(4), 21-25.

Gandossy, R., & Sonnenfeld, J. (2004). "I see nothing, I hear nothing": Culture, corruption, and apathy. In R. Gandossy & J. Sonnenfeld (Ed.), Leadership and governance from the inside and out (pp. 3-26). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. Inc.

Mitroff, I. (2004). Crisis leadership: Planning for the unthinkable. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Modis, T. (2003).… [END OF PREVIEW]

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