Gastrointestinal and Cardiovascular Systems Integration in Humans Essay

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There are three different phenomena that have been observed during this interdigestive period. The first of these phenomena is motor activity in which "peristole and tonal and hunger contractions supplant peristalsis" (Rehfuss and Hawk 1921). The second phenomenon includes a "lessoning in secretory velocity and a reduction of the tritatable acidity to less than half of that seen in the digestive phase" (Rehfuss and Hawk 1921). The third phenomenon is an "alteration in the status of the stomach and duodenum during this period" (Rehfuss and Hawk 1921). Interdigestive secretion follows the patterns of migrating myoelectric complexes (MMC); this pattern occurs every 60-120 minutes (Pandol 2011). Interdigestive activity begins with gallbladder contraction and when the Oddi sphincter relaxes; during the interdigestive phase, gallbladder volume decreases by 30%-35% (Magee 1987). After this gallbladder activity, "the motility of the stomach, the volume of its secretion, and the secretion of pepsin all increase (Magee 1987). This interdigestive activity helps to clear out the stomach and small intestine of debris, and bacteria, between meals.

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Interdigestive gastric blood flow activity has been studied extensively, albeit in canine subjects. These studies have found that during interdigestive periods, gastric blood flow would both rise and fall in conjunction with interdigestive motor activity. For example, peristaltic contractions during interdigestive periods would cause blood flow to increase then decrease rapidly. It was also found that in 23% of the test subjects, cyclical blood flow would increase before contractions began (Naruse, Takagi, Kato, & Ozaki 1992). Furthermore, gastric blood flow peaks coincided with pepsin peaks. It was found that gastric blood flow undergoes a series of rapid changes that coincide with periodic motor and secretory activity during interdigestive periods (Naruse, et al. 1992).

TOPIC: Essay on Gastrointestinal & Cardiovascular Systems Integration in Humans Assignment

Both the digestive system and cardiovascular system work in conjunction in order to introduce and disseminate nutrients, hormones, and eliminate wastes from the human body. While food is introduced into the body through the mouth and processed, broken-down, and passed into the cardiovascular system by the digestive system, it is the cardiovascular system that transports these nutrients, hormones, and other supplements throughout the body by pumping blood to and from the heart and to the rest of the body. Separately, the digestive system helps to introduce and provide a steady flow of food that will be broken down to provide energy and various nutrients to the body, whereas the cardiovascular system will ensure that blood, hormones, and other nutrients are consistently provided to other parts of the body. Furthermore, a healthy blood supply to the digestive system will ensure that the cells will not become weak and/or die.


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Magee, DF 1987, Interdigestive activity in the gastrointestinal tract, Physiology, Volume 2 (3): 101, viewed 1 October 2011,

Naruse S, Takagi T, Kato M, & Ozaki T, 1992, Interdigestive blood flow: the relation to motor and secretory activities in conscious dogs, Experimental Physiology, Volume 77, 701-708.

Pandol, SJ 2011, The exocrine pancreas, Integrated systems physiology: molecule to function to disease, D.N. Granger & JP Granger, eds, Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences, viewed 1 October 2011,

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University of Leicester 2001, Anatomy and physiology of gastrointestinal system tutorial, viewed

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How to Cite "Gastrointestinal and Cardiovascular Systems Integration in Humans" Essay in a Bibliography:

APA Style

Gastrointestinal and Cardiovascular Systems Integration in Humans.  (2011, September 15).  Retrieved July 28, 2021, from

MLA Format

"Gastrointestinal and Cardiovascular Systems Integration in Humans."  15 September 2011.  Web.  28 July 2021. <>.

Chicago Style

"Gastrointestinal and Cardiovascular Systems Integration in Humans."  September 15, 2011.  Accessed July 28, 2021.