Gastrointestinal and Cardiovascular Systems Integration in Humans Essay

Pages: 5 (2173 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 7  ·  File: .docx  ·  Topic: Anatomy

SAMPLE EXCERPT . . .

There are three different phenomena that have been observed during this interdigestive period. The first of these phenomena is motor activity in which "peristole and tonal and hunger contractions supplant peristalsis" (Rehfuss and Hawk 1921). The second phenomenon includes a "lessoning in secretory velocity and a reduction of the tritatable acidity to less than half of that seen in the digestive phase" (Rehfuss and Hawk 1921). The third phenomenon is an "alteration in the status of the stomach and duodenum during this period" (Rehfuss and Hawk 1921). Interdigestive secretion follows the patterns of migrating myoelectric complexes (MMC); this pattern occurs every 60-120 minutes (Pandol 2011). Interdigestive activity begins with gallbladder contraction and when the Oddi sphincter relaxes; during the interdigestive phase, gallbladder volume decreases by 30%-35% (Magee 1987). After this gallbladder activity, "the motility of the stomach, the volume of its secretion, and the secretion of pepsin all increase (Magee 1987). This interdigestive activity helps to clear out the stomach and small intestine of debris, and bacteria, between meals.

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Interdigestive gastric blood flow activity has been studied extensively, albeit in canine subjects. These studies have found that during interdigestive periods, gastric blood flow would both rise and fall in conjunction with interdigestive motor activity. For example, peristaltic contractions during interdigestive periods would cause blood flow to increase then decrease rapidly. It was also found that in 23% of the test subjects, cyclical blood flow would increase before contractions began (Naruse, Takagi, Kato, & Ozaki 1992). Furthermore, gastric blood flow peaks coincided with pepsin peaks. It was found that gastric blood flow undergoes a series of rapid changes that coincide with periodic motor and secretory activity during interdigestive periods (Naruse, et al. 1992).

TOPIC: Essay on Gastrointestinal & Cardiovascular Systems Integration in Humans Assignment

Both the digestive system and cardiovascular system work in conjunction in order to introduce and disseminate nutrients, hormones, and eliminate wastes from the human body. While food is introduced into the body through the mouth and processed, broken-down, and passed into the cardiovascular system by the digestive system, it is the cardiovascular system that transports these nutrients, hormones, and other supplements throughout the body by pumping blood to and from the heart and to the rest of the body. Separately, the digestive system helps to introduce and provide a steady flow of food that will be broken down to provide energy and various nutrients to the body, whereas the cardiovascular system will ensure that blood, hormones, and other nutrients are consistently provided to other parts of the body. Furthermore, a healthy blood supply to the digestive system will ensure that the cells will not become weak and/or die.

References:

Bowen, R 2002, Salivary glands and saliva, Colorado State University, viewed 14 September 2011, http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/pregastric/salivary.html

Cleveland Clinic 2005, The structure and function of the digestive system, viewed 29 September 2011, http://www.cchs.net/health/health-info/docs/1600/1699.asp?index=7041

Cotterill, S 2000, The cardiovascular system (heart and blood): medical terminology for cancer, Department of Child Health, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, viewed 14 September 2011, http://www.cancerindex.org/medterm/medtm8.htm

Gregory, M n.d., The circulatory system, Clinton Community College, State University of New York, viewed 15 September 2011, http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/Bio%20100/Bio%20100%20Lectures/Organ%20Systems/Circulatory%20System/Circulatory%20System.htm

Magee, DF 1987, Interdigestive activity in the gastrointestinal tract, Physiology, Volume 2 (3): 101, viewed 1 October 2011, http://www.deepdyve.com/lp/the-american-physiological-society/interdigestive-activity-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-8ic3IDHC4v

Naruse S, Takagi T, Kato M, & Ozaki T, 1992, Interdigestive blood flow: the relation to motor and secretory activities in conscious dogs, Experimental Physiology, Volume 77, 701-708.

Pandol, SJ 2011, The exocrine pancreas, Integrated systems physiology: molecule to function to disease, D.N. Granger & JP Granger, eds, Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences, viewed 1 October 2011, http://www.scribd.com/doc/61023736/15/INTERDIGESTIvE-SECRETIoN

Rehfuss, ME & Hawk, PB 1921, Gastric Analysis, The Archives of Diagnosis, Heinrich Stern, editor, viewed 1 October 2011.

Sellers, B 1998, The digestive system: lecture 1, University of Edinburgh, viewed 29 September 2011, homepage.mac.com/wis/Personal/lectures/digestive_system/Digestive%20System%20Lectures.pdf

Thibodeau, G 1992, Structure and function of the body, Mosby Year Book, Chicago.

University of Leicester 2001, Anatomy and physiology of gastrointestinal system tutorial, viewed

15 September 2011, http://www.le.ac.uk/pa/teach/va/anatomy/case6/frmst6.html [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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