Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders of Motility Research Paper

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Gastrointestinal Tract: Disorders of Motility

Normal Pathophysiology of Gastric Acid Stimulation and Production:

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The stomach produces gastric acid in order to break down food products into necessary vitamins and eventual waste product; this is the normal function and when there is not a medical issue to prevent or inhibit the acids from performing their proper job, there are no negative consequences for its existence. There are three stages of gastric acid stimulation and production in a normally-functioning body. First there is the cephalic phase where thought, taste, smell, or sight of food begins acid stimulation. These processes incite the gastrointestinal tract to begin producing the acid and secreting it into the stomach so that the food that is eventually consumed can be broken down. Then, begins the gastric phase where the chemicals within food are distributed into the stomach. When the food hits the stomach, it is met by hydrochloric acid which has already been secreted. The food is dissolved by the acid and broken down into its essential components. Finally, during the intestinal phase the final bits of acid are secreted in response to the consumption of a meal. As the food content travels through the gastrointestinal tract, it is further broken down into either nutrients or waste matter. The level of acid produced is usually in direct correlation to the size of the meal and the content of the food products consumed. Acid and pepsin are created within the stomach which itself has mechanisms designed to protect the organs and inner body from the caustic nature of the substances produced (Soll 2013). These defenses and healing mechanisms are controlled by neural, endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine paths within the human body, provided all mechanisms are functioning properly.

Changes that Occur to Gastric Acid Stimulation and Production with GERD, PUD, and Gastritis Disorders:

Research Paper on Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders of Motility Assignment

When a person has issues with their gastrointestinal tract because of GERD, PUD, or Gastritis conditions, there are actually changes that occur with regard to acid stimulation and production. In some cases, the stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract produces too mucho f the gastric acid; too much of this makes it impossible for the body to function normally and the acid, having already destroyed the food products for which they were created, begin attacking the actual body. In GERD patients, the acid that is produced is refluxed by the body into the esophagus which can cause a great deal of discomfort. According to Kahrilas (2003), "Once reflux has occurred, impaired acid clearance prolongs exposure of the mucosa to the damaging effects of the refluxate" (page S7). Acid is secreted into body parts which are not prepared for it and has not been designed to defend itself against the damage this acid can cause (Kahrilas 2003,-page S5). PUD (peptic ulcer disease) is diagnosed when a patient has gastric, duodenal, or esophageal ulcers which are most often caused by a bacterial infection of Helicobacterpylori or H. pylori. Usually PUD is caused by hypersecretion of hydrochloric acid or pepsin which the body is unable to protect itself against (Peters 2010). The body defenses, including mucosal barriers are overridden and the acid enters parts where there are no defenses, releasing histamines which then produce additional acids eventually creating lesions in the locations where the body is attacked by its own acid production. The dysfunction within the body that leads to gastrointestinal disorders such as GERD, PUD, and gastritis can be anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. Many, for example, experience lower esophageal sphincter dysfunction wherein an increase in the proportions of TSLERS ("decreased LES resting tone, impaired esophageal acid clearance, delayed gastric emptying, decreased salivation, and impaired tissue resistance") is accompanied by the reflux already described (Kahrilas 2003,-page S6). Any of these aspects can be singular or combined with any or several of… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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