Gender on Concussion Reporting Annotated Bibliography

Pages: 7 (2252 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 7  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Sports


Each of the participants had competed in either a high school sport or a college team. The participants were required to indicate their perceived stress intensity and their typical coping response after experiencing two stressors that they perceived as most intense. The results were analyzed via multivariate analysis.


There were differences by race and gender. Caucasians experienced higher stress intensity more often than did African-Americans, while Hispanics did not significantly differ from either group. Caucasians were more likely to use an approach-behavior coping style. Women's self-report indicated a higher stress intensity for coach related sources of acute stress. Women used approach-behavioral and avoidance-cognitive groups more than men.


Both race and gender impact how athletes experience stress, as well as impacting coping styles.


The fact that female athletes were more likely to indicate high levels of stress for coach related sources of acute stress, might make them less likely to report injuries to their coaches.

Sullivan, P. (2004). Communication differences between male and female team sport athletes. Communication Reports 17 (2 Summer), 121-128.


Download full Download Microsoft Word File
paper NOW!
Although overall communication differences between males and females are suspected to be small, if they exist at all, some research suggests that these differences are greater when comparing male and female athletes.

Hypotheses / Research Questions

The research question was whether male and female athletes communicate differently.


TOPIC: Annotated Bibliography on Gender on Concussion Reporting in Assignment

The study participants were 150 female and 148 male athletes. They were given a 15-item questionnaire with the Scale for Effective Communication in Team Sports. The responses indicate one of four factors of communication: acceptance, distinctiveness, positive conflict, and negative conflict.


The researcher found no differences in how male and female athletes communicate in terms of frequency. However, the athletes self-reported high frequencies of acceptance, but only moderate frequencies of distinctiveness, positive conflict, and negative conflict.


Although it was suspected that male and female athletes might show greater differences in communication style than other groups of males and females, the study showed very similar communication styles for males and females.


Because male and female athletes show similar communication styles, one might anticipate that they would report injuries at a similar rate.

Docheff, D.M. (2011). Dealing with differences: A coach's perspective. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 82(8), 33-35, 39.


The author of the article was responding to changing social norms dictating which sports are appropriate for males and females, placing them within the context of other cultural norms that had once dictated that some sports were inappropriate for people from particular ethnic backgrounds.

Hypotheses / Research Questions

The article does not contain original research, therefore does not have any specific hypotheses or research questions. However, it address whether religion, weight, race, ethnicity, mental disabilities, physical disabilities, and gender impact sport.


The article is a research-backed opinion essay, therefore there is no research method.


The article is a research-backed opinion essay, therefore there are no results.


The author provides five tips to eliminate the impact of difference in sports. These tips are aimed at coaches. The first tip is for a coach to know the students and athletes and communicate with them. The second tip is for the coach to know himself, and be honest about whether he is treating all athletes equally. The third tip is to provide a safe environment for athletes and foster open communication between the athletes and the athletes. Tip four is to set a good example, with a zero tolerance policy for harassment. The fifth tip is to remain current on issues.


While the article does not provide any research for the paper, it does highlight some issues in coaching that might lead to better or worse coach-athlete relationship dyads. The article makes me wonder if any gender differences would disappear if the study normed for coaching style.


Angelini, J.R. (2008). Television sports and athlete sex: Looking at the differences in watching male and female athletes. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 52(1), 16-32.

Anshel, M. (2009). Racial and gender differences on sources of acute stress and coping style among competitive athletes. The Journal of Social Psychology, 149(2), 159-177.

Docheff, D.M. (2011). Dealing with differences: A coach's perspective. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 82(8), 33-35, 39.

Joesaar, H., Hein, V., & Hagger, M.S. (2011). Peer influence on young athletes' need satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and persistence in sport: A 12-month prospective study. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12(5), 500-508.

Kassing, J.W. & Infante, D.A. (1999). Aggressive communication in coach-athlete… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

Two Ordering Options:

Which Option Should I Choose?
1.  Download full paper (7 pages)Download Microsoft Word File

Download the perfectly formatted MS Word file!

- or -

2.  Write a NEW paper for me!✍🏻

We'll follow your exact instructions!
Chat with the writer 24/7.

Human Resources Policies and Guidelines Term Paper

PTSD History Study Effects and Treatments for War Veterans Research Paper

View 200+ other related papers  >>

How to Cite "Gender on Concussion Reporting" Annotated Bibliography in a Bibliography:

APA Style

Gender on Concussion Reporting.  (2013, September 23).  Retrieved August 3, 2021, from

MLA Format

"Gender on Concussion Reporting."  23 September 2013.  Web.  3 August 2021. <>.

Chicago Style

"Gender on Concussion Reporting."  September 23, 2013.  Accessed August 3, 2021.