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Gender Differences in Drug Abuse Crimes Among JuvenilesResearch Paper

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Juvenile Delinquents

Goal Statement, Variables

hypotheses/theories

SAMPLING PROCEDURE

COVER LETTER

RESEARCH FINDINGS/CONCLUSION

PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED

GOAL STATEMENT: To examine who is more likely to commit substance abuse or drug abuse crimes between male and female juveniles.

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES:

Gender

Age

Support Programs

Reporting

What gender commits more drug abuse crimes among juveniles?

Are substance or drug abuse crimes among juveniles dependent on age?

Are the differences in the substance abuse crimes related to availability of necessary support programs?

Are there gender differences in reporting drug abuse crimes among juveniles?

What are the gender differences in reporting the need for treatment among juveniles arrested for drug abuse crimes?

HYPOTHESES/THEORIES

H1. MALES COMMIT MORE DRUG ABUSE CRIMES THAN FEMALES

T1. The probable theory associated with this hypothesis is more male juveniles because of the differences in socialization between males and females. Men tend to learn and conform to masculine traits more quickly than women. The conformity to masculine identities enhances the possibility of developing drug-related behaviors. Moreover, men tend to spend more time in social events, which enhances their likelihood of developing substance-related behaviors than females.

H2. AGE IS ONE OF THE DICHOTOMOUS INDICATORS OF DRUG USE DIFFERENCES AMONG JUVENILES

T2. The possible theory regarding this hypothesis is that age determines the gender differences in substance abuse between male and female juveniles. The high number of men engaged in substance abuse problems is attributed to the fact that they start developing drug-related problems at an early age. Actually, men engage in drug use at a relatively early age as compared to females.

H3. THE AVAILABILITY OF SUPPORT PROGRAMS INFLUENCE RATES OF DRUG ABUSE CRIMES AMONG JUVENILES

T3. The probable theory about this hypothesis is that the rate of substance or drug abuse crimes between males and females is partly attributed to availability of necessary support programs for each gender. Since fewer females are apprehended such crimes, the support programs available for them are fewer than those for their male counterparts. The availability of support programs influence the number of arrests and subsequently result in gender differences in drug abuse crimes among juveniles.

H4. FEMALES TEND TO DO MORE SELF-REPORTING THAN MALES

T4. The possible theory surrounding this hypothesis is males increasingly engage in drug abuse crimes than females because they do not self-report their crimes and encourage their peers to engage in them. Females tendency to self-report limit their prolonged involvement in these behaviors and its spread unlike males.

H5. FEMALES ARRESTED FOR JUVENILE DRUG ABUSE CRIMES INCREASINGLY REPORT NEED FOR TREATMENT THAN MALES

T5. The probable theory surrounding this theory is that females' tendency to express need for treatment as compared to males lessens the spread and continued engagement in drug use. Males commit more substance abuse crimes since they are not ready to self-report and ask for treatment.

III. SAMPLING PROCEDURE

This research project is conducted to examine the various demographic factors involved with those who commit substance or drug abuse crimes among juveniles. Since it is descriptive in nature and incorporates a wider population, the research will be based on a random sample of all juveniles arrested for drug abuse crimes per state. The random sample will be selected after data is entered in a data analysis program like Microsoft Excel. The research process will also entail sending a cover letter to the federal agencies that deal with juvenile justice. This will be achieved after collecting reports (which are easily available and accessible) from various federal agencies regarding trends on juvenile crimes. After receiving approval from these agencies, the data collection process will begin but restricted to a timeframe of three years. The researcher will send out questionnaires to the heads of these federal agencies to notify them the required kind of data for analysis. The demographic data that will be analyzed will relate to gender, age, treatment programs, and drug use history.

This research is geared towards helping professionals in the juvenile justice system understand those who are likely to develop drug-related behaviors and eventually commit drug abuse crimes among juveniles. It will help in understanding the gender that support and treatment programs should focus on the most to address juvenile drug abuse offenses. The project will be availed for future researches on drug use problems among the youth and adolescents.

Based on a sample size of 4,000 juveniles, this generates a sampling error of 1% based on a 90% confidence level.

IV. COVER LETTER

April 12, 2015

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

810 Seventh Street NW

202-307-5911

Attn:

RE: Research Proposal

INSTRUCTIONS: Please circle the most suitable response to each question.

1. What is your gender?

i. Male ii. Female

2. How old were you when you first used drugs?

i. 12-14 years ii. 15-17 years iii. 18-20 years iv. More than 20 years.

3. a) Are you aware of any available support or treatment program in your area?

i. Yes ii. No

b) Have you received suitable support and treatment assistance from available programs since you first used drugs?

i. Yes ii. No

4. Have you ever reported your drug use problems to any authority figure such as your parents, teachers or the police?

i. Yes ii. No

5. Have you ever expressed the need for treatment to relevant authorities?

i. Yes ii. No

6. What gender is more involved in drug abuse crimes?

i. Male ii. Female

VI. LIETRATURE REVIEW

Article #1

After reviewing an article on gender differences in juvenile arrestees in relation to drug use, self-reporting, and need for treatment, it was found that a high number of drug abuse rates are carried out by male juveniles. The study was carried out to examine gender differences in drug abuse crimes, self-reported dependence, and perceived need for treatment among juveniles (Kim & Fendrich, 2002, p.70). The researchers based their study on sampling from national data of juvenile arrestees and detainees aged between 9 and 18 years old. The research participants were asked questions regarding their living conditions and arrangements, use of drugs, and need for drug treatment. Moreover, the study was based on various kinds of drugs abused by these individuals including marijuana, amphetamines, heroin, phencyclidine, and crack.

Through the use of logistic regression, the researchers found that boys were increasingly likely to engage in frequent drug use than girls. Actually, a significant portion of juvenile arrestees for drug abuse crimes were males while females accounted for a small portion of these arrests. Secondly, they also found that girls were more likely to report perceived need for treatment as compared to boys though their expression of the need for treatment was equal. Third, female juveniles engaged in drug abuse were more likely to self-report their behaviors unlike males.

This article is important in this research project since it provides significant information and findings about gender differences in drug abuse crimes among juveniles. The national outlook of the study provides a broader view of specific issues relating to drug abuse crimes among juveniles. Moreover, the study is significant because it addresses three variables included in this research project.

Article #2

The review of an article by Richard Dembo and other researchers on gender differences in drug use and sexual behaviors and diseases found that there is a significant difference between male and female juveniles engaging in drug abuse crimes. This group of researchers conducted their study among arrested youths at a centralized correctional facility and those released back to the community. The study also focused on conducting tests of a structural model on newly arrested male and female juveniles for drug use and sexual behaviors (Dembo et. al, 2010, p.424).

The researchers found that substance use and risky sexual behaviors was similar for male and female juveniles having contact with the juvenile justice system. Secondly, they found that there are gender differences in the link between risk and age as well as other factors like race and severity of the crime. Third, the group of researchers report age differences in the likelihood of engaging in several forms of risky behaviors among juvenile offenders.

This study is important in this research project since it covers one of the major variables in this research i.e. The impact of age on drug abuse crime rates between male and female juveniles. Through this study, the researcher will obtain vital information regarding the specific ages when male and female juveniles are vulnerable to drug-related behaviors and eventual engagement in substance abuse crimes.

VII. DATA ANALYSIS

DISTRIBUTION OF GENDER AND DRUG ABUSE CRIMES

Gender

No. Of Drug Abuse Crimes

Percentage

Male

70%

Female

30%

Totals

The above table supports Hypothesis H1, which states that males commit more drug abuse crimes than females. As evident in the data, out of a total of 4000 samples, 70% were males, which represent a significant portion of drug abuse crimes among juveniles.

INVOLVEMENT IN DRUG-RELATED CRIMES BY AGE

Gender

12-14 years

15-17 years

18-20 years

Above 20 years

Male

Female

DISTRIBUTION OF DRUG ABUSE CRIMES ACROSS ALL AGES

Gender

Involvement in Drug Use

Percentage… [END OF PREVIEW]

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