Term Paper: Gender and Sexuality

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Gender and Sexuality

Prior to 1942, which five countries in Latin America had granted female suffrage?

Ecuador in 1929

Brazil in 1932

Uruguay in 1932

Cuba 1934

El Salvador in 1939

From one of your readings, what three aspects of democratic governance were analyzed with respect to their implications for gender equity?

First, democracy was viewed as only existing if those that are governing were there because those who were being governed agreed with their being there. Second, democracy was seen as a system where everyone was able to express their ideas as well as their concerns in order to dictate their own individual likings. Third, democracy entails giving different individuals the chance to govern over the people.

Name and describe the single-most important piece of legislation related to women's participation in politics.

The single-most important piece of legislation related to women's participation in politics was the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). This gave women all the rights that they needed to be able to voice their opinions in important governmental gatherings such as the National Conventions. They were guaranteed the same rights that men were receiving at the time, such as being able to express their social and political beliefs.

4.) Name 3 actions that are recommended to attain gender parity in political participation.

1.) Although the implementation of treaties, laws, and agreements has lowered the amount of discrimination against women, those regulations need to be retroactively enforced so as to eliminate the bias that existed in the past.

2.) Affirmative action implementation is also recommended so as to better balance the gender power dynamics in politics.

3.) Training in politics and programs that enhance the educational aspects of non-discriminatory actions will allow people to learn how to not discriminate against women in politics

5.) According to Yoo (2012), what 3 ways have non-state actors, women's international nongovernmental organizations (WINGOs), and international organizations provided a new opportunity structure for women's rights movements and the proliferation of state reforms of gender policies?

First, these agencies have enabled women to fight for feminism all over the world. These advocacy groups give women the opportunity to network and work with each other to fight for women's rights. Second, positions that are structured specifically for women can improve the unequal gender dynamics that exist. Third, shaping the political agenda for women's rights on a global level, especially with regards to the UN, will enable for more activism to occur.

6.) What are the four key areas that the World Economic Forum uses to analyze a nation's gender gap?

The first key area is in giving women the same opportunities and participation in economics as men, which includes having equally paid high-ranking jobs for each gender. The second key area is in allowing women to become just as educated as men. The third key area is in equalizing the life expectancy rates for both men and women by providing equal health resources. The fourth key area is in allowing women the same political power as men so that they can voice the opinions and represent other women.

7 According to the reading from Module 12, how does the media reflect existing gender differences and inequalities?

The media reflects the gender inequalities and differences of its viewers by promoting gendered media. This is meant to say that there are shows that clearly promote stereotypical gender roles. The media targets women with networks such as Oxygen and Lifetime that are tailored toward women, but have television programs such as soap operas and medical dramas, while networks such as Spike carry shows such as Western shows and crime dramas. The readings also dictate that the music media promotes misogyny by allowing men to portray women as objects in music genres such as rap and metal. Video game media is also guilty of promoting misogynistic ideals. Games such as Call of Duty and Grand Theft Auto devalue women as a promotion strategy for their biggest customers: men.

8. According to the reading from Module 13, where do constructed problems of the contemporary family stem from? What are 3 of these problems? Name all 7 (seven) and explain why they are considered problems.

According to the readings, the constructed problems of the contemporary family stem from the stress that members of a family feel as they attempt to balance and maintain work, children, marriage, and the household without the help of anyone outside the immediate family unit. Three of these problems are the problems with daycare, the problem of teenage pregnancy, and the problem of fatherlessness. However, there are seven problems in total. The first one is daycare. There is no government support for new parents to take care of their infants, yet the price of daycare for any income level is astonishing; very few people can actually afford sending their children to daycare in order to go to work. The second problem is with teenage pregnancy. This is said to be a problem because it is an excuse to blame women for getting pregnant without necessarily sharing that same blame with the fathers. The third problem is with fatherlessness. The problem does not lay necessarily on the father leaving, but instead on the lack of involvement by fathers that are around. The fourth problem is divorce. The rates are extremely high and this is due to the problems with gender inequality and fatherlessness within a family. The fifth problem is child custody. The mother usually gets granted custody of the children, however, the problem is that men often completely dissociate themselves from the family, leaving most of the responsibilities to the mother on her own. The sixth problem is gay and lesbian families. Their relationships and parenting are not the problem, but the perceived negativity from others judging them is. The seventh problem is family violence. The problem is in excessive discipline and the perceived notion that parents have the right to hit or spank their children.

9.) Hernandez et al. divided the results of their research on hip-hop culture, youth, gender, and violence into two parts. Name and describe one of these parts. Extra credit: Name and describe both parts of their results.

The first part was titled "Violence, Gender, and Hip-Hop." The results of this study promoted the varying gender roles that exist within the poor, urban community. Their definition of violence and their interest in hip-hop varied according to whether it was a female or a male answering the questions. Hip-hop that was viewed as depicting the struggling life of urban youth was most popular. This music included artists such as Jay-Z who is the most agreed upon role model for these youths. They saw him as being a person who got himself out of the urban environment by telling the public how life was in reality. The definition of violence also varied according to gender. Males saw violence as a part of everyday life. They viewed it as a means for survival and a way to defend their honor and gain respect. Women on the other hand viewed violence through a variety of facets, including emotional and psychological forms of violence. However, each group fell into their respective perceived gender roles. Males were the ones out in the streets dealing with the inevitable confrontations as a way to defend what was theirs, while females were the caregivers and the heads of the households who held everything together.

10.) According to Burnham, what were reasons given for why a gender justice lens is not integrated into the work of social justice organizations (list all of them)?

The first reason given is that gender is not really used as a means for understanding the important social problems that directly affect them. Another reason is that the goals and missions… [END OF PREVIEW]

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