Essay: Gender a Society Is a Community

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Gender

A society is a community of people who love in a particular and are related to each other either by relationships, cultures or norms. While a society includes people of both the gender, however, for a great deal of time societies around the world have proven to show gender biases and conservatism as far as women's contribution in the society is concerned. In most societies around the world, male have been a more dominant member in the society. Females were only confined to the private familial buildings. Although the advent of information technology, media exposure and educated modern societies have changed problem of gender discrimination to a great deal, the problem still persists in many parts of the world where woman are still headed by the male members of the society. Even though women in most societies had a limited role to play in the outer world, the fact that they looked after and brought up the families meant that directly or indirectly they had a major role in the formation of norms and cultural values of the society. This is because a mother had always been the first educational institution a child gets exposed to.

Like wise males members also have their role to play in a society. In most societies around the world, male members are responsible for earning bread and butter and protecting their families. However, most societies around the world have attributed the physical strength of a men to his right of dominating women in the society. This notion has paved ways for various gender biases, stigmas taboos and myths that have greatly affected the lives of many men and woman around the world.

1. Provide an Overview of The Relationship Between the Gender Order, Gender Regimes, and Gender Relations.

The disbalance between the roles and the power and authority of two genders in societies around the world had attracted the attention of various researchers. There researchers carried out an in depth social and psychological researches and gave various gender based theorists and terminologies, many of which were inter-related to each other.

The term Gender Order, according Connell, refers to the way power structures and power sharing in various societies shapes and defines the masculinity and/or femininity of a person. In general, most societies attribute greater power with the masculinity due to the 'strength factor'. Gender regime on the other hand refers to how different genders are related to each other and how their roles are defines in a particular setting or context such as an organization.

Gender roles, as the term suggests, refer to the norms and behavior that each of the genders are expected to learn, develop and adhere to in a society. Usually these norms and behaviors are developed by the society as part of their culture at large and members of the society of both the genders are expected to learn them and adhere to them as part of their upbringing process. A member of the society that fails to adhere to gender-based norms and behaviors that he or she is expected to follow is looked upon as deviant to the society and culture. In many cases, it is these Gender roles that trigger the emergence of various stigmas, taboos and myths attributed with the way member of each gender should or should not carry himself or herself. A good example of this is the fact that in many conservative societies, especially those in the subcontinent singing and dancing of females was seen as a taboo and it was not advisable for women belonging to 'elite' and 'prestigious' families to take up singing and dancing as a profession.

Gender order, gender roles and gender regimes are highly interrelated with one another. The way a society defines the masculinity or femininity of a person determines the degree to which he or she will be allowed to enjoy power and authority as compared to the opposite gender. Likewise both gender order and gender role will determine the kind of behavior and norms that a member of a particular gender will be expected to adhere to.

One of the structure of gender relations as referred to by Connell is the patriarchal structure where the society at large is strongly dominated by the male members. Taking up an example from a conservative sub-continental society, power and leadership in all aspects of life is attributed with masculinity. Males are the leader of the house and they are the ones who take all the decisive actions and decision making ranging from how their families will operate, the way financing will be done and how children will be brought up. The female members, in most cases mothers or housewives are only expected to execute what has been directed to them by their male counterparts. While sons tend to get independent at a certain age, the daughters are still expected to adhere to what their father decides for them in all matters, be it the way they dress, what academic and career choices, if any, they make and even the authority of choosing their life partners lie with the male members that is the father. After their marriage, women in such societies are expected to follow and execute the directions given by their husbands, which again is a male member of the society. With the passage of time, dub continental women are now able to enjoy a higher degree of liberties however, this is only in the cases where either some women are mentally strong enough to rebel the restrictive lifestyles imposed on them or the male members are liberal enough to 'allow' their women to enjoy liberties, but to a limited extent. Enter an organizational setting, while most of the top managerial positions are enjoyed by the male employees, in certain exceptional cases, there are women that make it up to an executive level position with their struggle and hard work. In many cases that is only possible when the woman herself id the owner of the organization. In cases where the female employee holds a superior position, many male members, although educated, perceive it to be an insult and against their honor to work under a female superior. This is due to their perceived notion that power is supposed to lie with the males and it is an insult and against a masculine honor when a female, the 'weaker' gender directs a men to her will. By many men, this is seen as a disgrace to their masculinity. This is the reason why at some organizations, gender biases are shown against the female employees when it comes to giving promotions. However, females automatically enjoy greater power in jobs such as brand ambassadors, receptionists and models. These are the places where a woman's beauty becomes the source of attracting customers for the organization. Again, the male members treat women as objects and use their beauty to attract profits for their organizations. It is this reason why in most societies, especially the one as conservative as the sub-continental one is attributes a woman's successful life with her beauty.

2. Briefly describe Connell's critique of sex-role/social learning theories,

Connell has been very critical of social learning theories and sex role theories. According to Connell these sex role theories aimed at demeaning one gender in comparison of the opposite gender. According to Connell (2009), most societies, especially those that adhere to a patriarchal structure. They see woman as objects that can be used to cause disgrace to an enemy or a group in opposition. In sub-continental societies women are still subjected to murder, rape and abduction during communal and familial violences where a raped and/or kidnapped woman is seen as a sign of disgrace by her family and the community at large.

In context of geographical cultures, the biggest example is the British colonial rule in the Indian Sub-Continent. The British entered the sub-continent as traders and the Indian society welcomed them despite of having much more conservative values as compared to that of the British. This showed that Indians were tolerant towards a foreign culture. The British however, got into a 'superiority complex' and considered that it's their divine right to spread their superior culture. In the process of forcefully imposing their culture on the Indian values, they directly targeted some of the religious and traditional values of Indians which were almost sacred to them. Such acts including abolishment of 'Pardaah' (veil for Muslim women), abolishment of 'Satti' (an old Indian tradition) and replacing segregated schools for boys and girls with a co education system. Many supporters of cultural relativism argue that some of those traditions were inhumane. Even if that argument is accepted, and it is considered that the intention of the British was to eliminate inhumane traditions, a better was to educate people about the rights and wrongs rather than forcefully imposing their own cultural opinion on others. Regardless of the 'clean' intent of the British to protect women's rights, many local activists raised voice and saw liberties… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Gender a Society Is a Community.  (2011, July 31).  Retrieved June 20, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/gender-society-community/72273

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