Gender and Society Sexism Term Paper

Pages: 5 (1477 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 13  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Sports

Additionally, men's sports are traditionally considered in a "more superior manner" (Armstrong & Hallmark, 1999).

Tuggle (1996, 1997) reports that ESPN's "SportCenter" and even CNN devote much less than "five percent of their coverage to women's sports" (Armstrong & Hallmark, 1999). Of the coverage that women are offered, team sports are often ignored in favor of individual events such as golf and tennis (Armstrong & Hallmark, 1999). Women's sports are often portrayed in the media as "less important than men's athletic competition" (Tuggle, 1997:19). This only emphasizes the idea that male sports are more supreme and competitive in nature. The lack of coverage of women competitors also suggests that women's sports are less important and less aggressive than male competition.

A study of NCAA Division I championship basketball games showed that announcers generally make more negative comments regarding athletes performances during female games than men's games (Armstrong & Hallmark, 1999:1).

The media utilizes sexist language and lack of coverage to degrade women athletes and portray them as less important than male athletes, despite a seeming growing participation by women in sports, and a growing interest in viewing in some respect by the public. The media portrays the image that women are either unsuited or unwelcome in the sporting arena (Tuggle, 1997: 18).

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According to a report by Blinde, Greendorfer and Shenker (1991), "the mediated productions of women's sport tend to ignore women's athletic ability and success" (p. 100). Obviously a gender bias exists related to media coverage and portrayal of women's sports. Generally, numerous examples can be found that indicate that the media's portrayal of women athletes is inadequate (Armstrong & Hallmark, 1999; Alexander, 1994). There are also some examples where women are excluded almost entirely from coverage in the media.

Term Paper on Gender and Society Sexism in Assignment

The lack of televising of women's sports may be responsible for the perceived lack of interest in women's sporting events. Women's sports when they are portrayed by the media are portrayed as less appealing than men's games (Armstrong & Hallmark, 1999). The media accomplishes the inequitable representation through language use, promotion and inadequate support which fails to provide viewers with the appropriate incentive to actually view the sports and gain interest (McGregor, 1989; Armstrong & Hallmark, 1999). According to one report, "sports is a business, that, when combined with the mass media, wields great influence over public perceptions and attitudes" (p. 55; Armstrong & Hallmark, 1999:1).

Gender differences and inequality in media coverage are very prevalent in the area of sports or athletic coverage. Women are not only portrayed less often than men, but also with a more sexist scope and utilization of language, thus giving viewers and readers the impression that women's events are less exciting and competitive than men's, though obviously this isn't the case. If media coverage of women's events was to expand, and media agents were more willing to offer a more objective review of women's events, eventually the gap in the fan base for female athletic events would narrow until both men s and women's events received adequate coverage and viewer validation.


Alexander, S. (1994). "Newspaper coverage of athletics as a function of gender." Women's Studies International Forum, 17 (6), 655-662

Armstrong, Richard N; Hallmark, James R. "Gender Equity in Televised Sports: A Comparative Analysis of Men's and Women's NCAA Division I Championship Broadcasts, 1991-1995). Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, Vol. 43, 1999.

Blinde, E.M., Greendorder, S.L., & Shenker, R.J. (1991). "Differential media coverage of men's and women's intercollegiate basketball: Reflection of gender and ideology." Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 15, (2), 98-114

Bryant, J. (1980). "A two-year selective investigation of the female athlete in sport as reported in the paper media." Arena Review, 4, 32-44

Carstarphen, Meta G.; Zavoina, Susan C. "Sexual Rhetoric: Media Perspectives on Sexuality, Gender and Identity." Greenwood Press, 1999.

DeFrantz, A.L. (1988). "Women and leadership in sport." Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 59 (3), 46-48

Hillard, D.C. (1984). "Media images of male and female professional athletes: An interpretive analysis of magazine articles." Sociology of Sports Journal, 1 (1), 251-262

McGregor, E. (1989). "Mass media and sport: Influences on the public." The Physical Educator, 46 (1), 52-55

Rintala, J. & Birrel, S. (1984). "Fair treatment for the active female: A content analysis of Young Athlete magazine." Sociology of Sport Journal, 1, (1), 235-245

Tuggle, C.A. (1996). "Television sports reporting of female athletics: Quantitative and… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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APA Style

Gender and Society Sexism.  (2004, April 25).  Retrieved January 18, 2021, from

MLA Format

"Gender and Society Sexism."  25 April 2004.  Web.  18 January 2021. <>.

Chicago Style

"Gender and Society Sexism."  April 25, 2004.  Accessed January 18, 2021.