Genetics Study of Biological Information Essay

Pages: 3 (931 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 5  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Junior  ·  Topic: Genetics

Genetics: Study of Biological Information

Genetics is the branch of biology dealing with heredity and variations of organisms and the genetic makeup and phenomena of an organism, type, group, or condition (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 2010). In this course, it has been defined as "the study of how biological information is stored, utilized, and passed on from one generation to the next."

The biological information is stored within the cells as Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) which is responsible for the coding and reproducing of the cellular information. Proteins, amino acids, and ribonucleic acid are the other main components involved in biological information process.

The life of an organism relies on the cells ability to store, transcribe, and translate the genetic information in the cell.

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The genetic material that carries all the hereditary information is the DNA and is found inside the nucleus of the cell. The DNA is a double helical structure whose backbone is composed of sugar-phosphate with nucleotide bases attached. There are four different nucleotide bases: adenine (a), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T) plus a fifth one found in RNA: uracil (U) which takes the place of the thymine (T). Only a and T. Or U. can bind together and only C. And G. can bind together. This makes a strand of DNA 'complementary' to the strand being made (Genetics: Elementary human genetics, 2006).

Essay on Genetics Study of Biological Information Assignment

The genetic information is basically instructions for making proteins (Alberts et al., n.d.). The proteins are made up of amino acids. The DNA is unwound in to two strands and the genetic code is transcribed on a strand of RNA; because DNA cannot leave the nucleus of the cell but RNA can leave the nucleus of the cell. The RNA then acts like a messenger delivering the genes sequence and finally translates the code information for the production of the protein. The protein decoded for plays a role in the formation and functions of the cell. The DNA of the cell is the same for all types of cells but the cells have different functions.

DNA is replicated by the use of DNA polymerase enzymes. The rate of error in the reproduction of the DNA strand is 1 in 100 million nucleotides. DNA is the storage of the genetic code but the RNA contains the actual template the protein is formed from. The RNA is broken down into three parts for this process: messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA. All forms of RNA cellular components are synthesized by RNA polymerases that are guided by the DNA. The process begins with transcription which precedes the translation. The translation is the synthesis of the proteins from the messenger RNA template. The gene expression of the cell, as known as the gene flow, is:

The hereditary information is passed from parent… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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APA Style

Genetics Study of Biological Information.  (2010, May 7).  Retrieved April 12, 2021, from

MLA Format

"Genetics Study of Biological Information."  7 May 2010.  Web.  12 April 2021. <>.

Chicago Style

"Genetics Study of Biological Information."  May 7, 2010.  Accessed April 12, 2021.