Genome Human Cloning Term Paper

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Genome Human Cloning

Human Cloning

Cloning is the set of techniques applied to build an identical genetic duplicate of a different cell, tissue or a living organism. The material that has been copied having the identical genetic constitution is normally stated to be the clone. In the history of animal cloning, the most famous clone was the sheep Dolly who became the first mammal to be cloned from an adult DNA. Three different types of cloning are present: These are (i) Gene cloning which helps create replica of genes or DNA segments (ii) Reproductive cloning which helps create duplicates of entire animals (iii) Therapeutic cloning which helps in creating embryonic stem cells. Thesis statement: Therapeutic cloning offers ray of new hope to researchers to utilize embryonic stem -- ES cells to grow normal healthy tissue to substitute infected or damaged tissues carry on with life. (Medicine Plus, 2008)

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Term Paper on Genome Human Cloning Assignment

As stated above, the expression cloning is used by scientists to define a lot of separate procedures and techniques which is used to make copies of biological material. In majority of instances, isolated genes or cells are copied for scientific research without any new animal. The research projects which resulted in cloning of Dolly were separate. There, a cloning procedure known as somatic cell nuclear transfer was used resulting in an animal which was a twin, albeit a genetic one separated by time of a full-grown sheep. This method is also capable to make an embryo from which cells known as embryonic stem -- ES cells could harvested to apply in research into possible treatment for a broad range of infections and ailments. Hence in the last five years, majority of the scientific and ethical debate regarding nuclear transfer of somatic cell has concentrated on its two possible uses viz (i) for purposes of reproduction in order to give birth to an offspring and (ii) for generating a source of ES cell for research purposes. However, in this paper as per the thesis statement we shall concentrate on cloning for the isolation of Human ES cells for therapeutic purposes. (National Human Genome Research Institute, n. d.)

The discussion for cloning was again opened during 1998 clashing with release of two reports on the successful isolation of human ES cells. These cells are unique and important cells located in animals which are constantly under reproduction and tissue renewal, right through the life cycle of a living being. ES Cells are found to be the most adaptable among all ES cells as they are almost homogeneous, or dedicated to a specialized function compared to adult stem cells. These cells have offered new hope to sometimes incapacitating and critical illness also. Latest researches carried on in mice and other animals have revealed that ES cells can help in the minimizing manifestations of Parkinson's diseases in mouse models, and also found to show results in other animal models with possible hope for cures. In the reports of 1988, ES cells were obtained from in vitro embryos of six to seven days old that are normally discarded by the couples enduring treatment for infertility and embryonic germ cell -- EG cells were collected from cadaveric fetal tissue subsequent to abortion. (National Human Genome Research Institute, n. d.)

Another third report published in the NY Times declared that a Massachusetts biotechnology company has been successful in fusing a human cell with an enucleated cow egg, making a hybrid clone which was unsuccessful in getting past an early state of development. This declaration worked as a cue that ES cells are also capable of being obtained from embryos build through somatic cell nuclear transfer, or cloning. Indeed, a lot of scientists regarded that obtaining ES cell through this process is going to be the most capable method to developing treatments as the nature of in vitro fertilization -- IVF embryos preserved for longer periods is doubtful and this nature of cloning could surpass graft-host reactions in case the consequential treatments were developed from the own DNA of the recipient. (National Human Genome Research Institute, n. d.)

As regards policy and regulation, DHHS declared that it planned to spend money for research on human ES cells derived from embryos staying following infertility treatments. This inference was founded on an explanation that embryonic stem cells of humans are not human embryo within the statutory meaning as the cells have not developed the potential to grow into a complete individual although following its transfer into the uterus. Therefore, their destruction in the time frame of research would never mean the destruction of an embryo. DHHS did not have plans to finance research through the use of stem cells obtained from embryos that have been created by means of cloning, even though such endeavors would be within the limit of law in the private sector. It is worthwhile to note that only human genome cloning has been allowed solely for therapeutic purposes by the Congress. (National Human Genome Research Institute, n. d.)

The process of 'manufacturing' cloned cells or organisms are to clone. The technique varies depending on the type of cells that are used in the cloning technique and the wanted outcome. Normally, while scientists proceed to clone an animal, they take the cell nucleus containing chromosomes made out of deoxyribonucleic acid -- DNA and proteins and put into an egg which is also known as an oocyte from which is devoid of the nucleus. Thereafter the egg cells divides to give birth to an embryo which forms an animal, if the methods proceed on course as intended. A diagram of the laboratory procedure created to produce Rhesus money and the process of creation of the world's fist clone sheep Dolly are shown in Exhibit -I and Exhibit -II respectively. (Barnes, n. d.)

Therapeutic Cloning which is also known as 'embryo cloning' is considered as the formation of human embryos that can be capable for usage in research. The outcome of the technique is not the production of creating cloned humans, however instead of collecting stem cells which could be applied in the study of human growth and also for the treatment of future diseases. From the biological point-of-view, stem cells are significant to those who conduct biomedical research since they could be used to produce almost any category of specialized cell inside the body of a human being. Stem cells are drawn from the egg subsequent to its division for 5 days. The egg during this phase of growth is known as a blastocyst. The procedure of extraction results in the destruction of the embryo that puts forth a lot of ethical questions. A lot of researchers anticipate that some day, stem cells will be capable of being used to serve as substitute cells for the treatment of cardiac ailments. ("Cloning Fact Sheet: Therapeutic Cloning," 2006)

Alzheimer's disease, cancer and a lot of other diseases can be treated with cloning in organ transplants. For example in November, 2001, scientists from a biotechnology company in Massachusetts -Advanced Cell Technologies -- ACT came forward with the declaration that they has been successful in cloning the first embryos of humans for the objective of promoting therapeutic research. In order to achieve this end, they received eggs from the ovaries of women and subsequently took away the genetic material relating to these eggs by a needle measuring below 2/10,000th of an inch in width. Thereafter a skin cell had been introduced within the enucleated egg to act as the new form of nucleus. The egg started division following stimulation with inomycim, a chemical. Even though this technique started off with 8 eggs, just 3 started dividing, and just 1 among them were capable of dividing into six cells prior to ending. ("Cloning Fact Sheet: Therapeutic Cloning," 2006)

Some Statistics i) in Portugal, scientist, with the help of 'olfactory enshething glial cells' obtained from the patient's nose lining to help treating injuries of spinal cord. The two young ladies were shown in a press conference, one of whom suffered paralysis and the other was a quadriplegic. After the operation, both were in a position to walk with the help of braces, thanks to 'adult stem cells'. (ii) a quadriplegic women of 20 years who got transplanted with 'umbilical cord stem cells' in her spinal injury site is presently capable of walking with the help of a walker. (iii) Stem Cells have been made use of to assist in the repair of damage to the bone of the skull in a girl aged seven in Germany. Not like other bones, skull bones do not regenerate; therefore metal plates have been used for damage repair. Through the use of 'adult stem cells' the bone plates which were missing had been substituted by solid, thin bone. Parts of the own bones of the child added with 'adult stem cells' gave the desired results. (ii) Similarly researchers in London with the help of adult stem cells have treated damaged livers. It is their… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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How to Cite "Genome Human Cloning" Term Paper in a Bibliography:

APA Style

Genome Human Cloning.  (2008, March 30).  Retrieved May 26, 2020, from

MLA Format

"Genome Human Cloning."  30 March 2008.  Web.  26 May 2020. <>.

Chicago Style

"Genome Human Cloning."  March 30, 2008.  Accessed May 26, 2020.