Genomes and Comparative Genomics Term Paper

Pages: 8 (2012 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 6  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Genetics

These specific genes which find expression in one species while remaining passive in another are responsible for the traits pertaining to the particular species. It would also give us an idea of the effect of the structural differences between the genes in the different species.

Homology of sequences

Homology is an important concept in studying genome sequences. Detection of homologous sequences is the essence of sequence analysis. Similarities in sequences or structures may either be the result of divergent or convergent trends. Homology is actually a measure of divergence between species, which shared a common origin. So a homology actually indicates the degree of divergent relationship. Homology study also helps us infer gene functionality. Within the homologous sequences proteins may either carry out the same functions or different functions. It is necessary to identify these differences between homologues. The proteins that carryout similar functions in different species are known as orthologues while the proteins that perform different (though related) functions are known as paralogues. Orthologous proteins hold the key in our study of molecular paleontology. Biologists have studied and developed phylogenetic trees, which reveal the relationship between bacteria, fungi, insects and many other highly evolved animals. [TK Attwood, 12]Download full Download Microsoft Word File
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The study of paralogous proteins, on the other hand helps us understand the evolutionary designs of nature. This is because paralogous proteins are derived from successive duplication of the same gene with subsequent adaptation. However it is precisely this complex paralogous and orthologous relationships, which makes it difficult for us to arrive at any concrete classification of the protein family. The key challenge faced by the experts in the field of bioinformatics however, is the effective analysis of the enormous amount of information (sequenced data) that is currently available and in interpreting them with respect to the protein structure and function and correctly correlating them to evolution pattern. With our continuous progress in understanding protein-folding mechanism we are well poised to handle this mammoth task. [Rost, 1988]


We are making rapid progress in the subject of genetics and within the next few years we can expect tremendous changes in the field of bioinformatics. The completion of the human genome project and the development of new time saving sequencing techniques would offer entirely new possibilities in diverse fields. The possibility of Genetic therapy would provide new hopes for people with hereditary disorders and the advancements in molecular treatment would mark a new era in medical diagnosis and treatment. In conclusion we can say that in the twenty-first century marked by the congruence of information technology and genetics we are making a significant step in understanding and unraveling the mysteries of nature


Mullis, KB (1990), Scientific American, April 1990, 56

Hecht, J., 19 May 2003, Chimps are human, gene study implies, New Scientist

Cohlan, A., 30 May 2002, "Just 2,5% of DNA turns mice into men," New Scientist

TK Attwood & DJ Parry Smith, "Introduction to bio Informatics," Published by ADDison Wesley Longman Ltd., 1999

Rost B, "Marrying Structure and Genomics," Structure, 6, 259-263

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APA Style

Genomes and Comparative Genomics.  (2003, October 1).  Retrieved April 13, 2021, from

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"Genomes and Comparative Genomics."  1 October 2003.  Web.  13 April 2021. <>.

Chicago Style

"Genomes and Comparative Genomics."  October 1, 2003.  Accessed April 13, 2021.