Essay: Globalization That Diversified Cultures

Pages: 10 (3441 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 10  ·  Level: Doctorate  ·  Topic: Leadership  ·  Buy This Paper


[. . .] Therefore, it is the sole responsibility of the leader to observe and identify correctly where the individual stands and how this individual can be dealt in terms of persuasion or in order to make an inspirational impact (Wahba, 1976).

According to Greet Hofstede, the study of national differences is very important because universal management is nothing and there is no single success formula to deal with every people and lead every individual. The management theories, leadership styles and methods change across the globe. The management exists everywhere with different meaning and different styles, there are some people who are based on Theory X, and then there are people who are based on Theory Y People having the characteristics of theory X love to work and fulfill their needs through getting the payment of that work, whereas people having the characteristics of theory Y do not want to work yet they want to achieve highest level of success without any strive. Dealing with these two different kinds of people is difficult. And in order to masterly deal with the cultural dimensions within an organization, a leader can utilize the concept of cultural dimensional model that are also presented by Geert Hostedede, where he describes a framework that has different value perspectives among the national cultures.

Power Distance

Power Distance is the degree to which a country or a nation accepts the inequity and distribution of power. Some people treat people from different culture, race groups, and ethnic background equally. And they do not tolerant any kind of inequity if they observe then they even raise their voice and try every possibility to overcome the problem.

On the other hand, there are some people for which power distance is very low and they do not observe the inequality that is spread out in their surrounding, in fact at times these people perceive the inequality as their fate and perfectly accept the high power distance. Hence, it is important to identify the power distance for every group of people because this actually defines the direction of leadership if it is going to be autocratic or democratic leadership. And the leader that people will inspire will be transactional or transformational (Fiedler, 1972).

Individualism vs. Collectivism

This is another scale that defines if a person is happy living isolated or if he wants to be within a group where he feels secure. There are some people who are able to perform well when they are independent, then there are people who are not able to handle work on their own, and require expert opinions, guidelines from different people so that they can achieve their destination. There are only few people who can perform equal quality work in both the conditions that is individually and in group as well. The most important part in collectivism or group working is communication, a person needs to be equally aware of how he needs to communicate with his team members and how the pace of the task will go through when same directions are given to each member.

Masculinity vs. Femininity

Although the modern world is striving to eliminate gender discrimination and its differences from organizations, but still due to human psychological heritage the dominance of gender remains within the minds of many people in the world. In many cultures, even today male is considered to be dominant over female and the degree to which this dominance, assertiveness and acquisition is possessed defines the person's understanding and comfort to work in equal gender ratio. People who perceive inequality of gender as important are usually not able to work with opposite gender in the workplace easily. This is a natural phenomena and a leader is supposed to identify this difference correctly as well in order to deal with that gender neutrally.

Uncertainty Avoidance

People in different parts of the world are comfortable working in different styles; some people think that work should be done no matter how it is done. The logs creation is not important and only if the purpose of the work is fulfilled then there is nothing better than that. Secondly, there are contrasting perceptions as well, where people want to perform in a highly structured manner. Everything needs to be in a proper shape and every task should be perfectly defined in order. This degree to which people like to work on structured to non-structured task is known as uncertainty avoidance. There are a few important things that are dependent upon these preferences. For instance people who prefer structured tasks take more time to produce results, but their results are of higher quality, and if any problem exists within the process they re-engineer the process and identify the problem creation point from where they change it. On the other hand, the people who prefer unstructured tasks are more concerned about the quick results, regardless of the quality they produce and if they find any problem in the process they restart the process from scratch instead of finding out the problem (Hersey & Blanchard, 1988).

Long-term vs. Short-term orientation

The long-term values are defined in the manner how people perceive to see their future life. The values they prefer for their future, the savings they would like to make to secure their future. These kinds of people are mostly savers of economy, and tend to invest their money in risk free investments. The short-term orientation interprets the values for different tradition, social obligations and others who are working from different backgrounds (Hofstede, 1983).

These five dimensional framework covers almost all aspects that a diversified culture would have, however it is also the responsibility of the leader to quickly observe and identify among which category people can fit in better according to the category these people are served. In multinational organizations, cultural diversity comes into play with a bigger role, and the responsibility of a leader to unite all the diversified workforce increases significantly. Apart from these cultural differences the most important classification of human is gender classification which also has to be considered while identifying these aspects, not only in terms of followers, but in terms of managerial and leadership qualities as well.

In the past few decades this has been evident that many of the women have entered into managerial roles which have given tough competition to the males already present in this field in order to gain leadership roles. Generally it is seen that men and women working in different environment have differences in their working styles due to differences in their genetics, cultivation, communication and their characteristics in that particular field, this to some extent leads different leadership styles in men and women.

In this era of competition when we view the leadership style of men and women this can be observed that leadership culture favors the women's leadership styles and due to their unique characteristics women contributes to the work environment in more dedicated manner. This is also evident that men and women have different leadership styles and they contribute to the organization in totally different manner. Though the style of both men and women are different but each of them makes different contributions to the organizations leading to effectiveness of the organizations (Moss, 1995).

A feminine leader is more considered about getting things done in a cooperative manner whereas a masculine leader should get things done through competition. The male leaders prefer organizational structure to be in a hierarchy where things are structured, whereas a feminine leader would want the structure to be equally divided in a team. Moreover, in the result orientation, the male leaders prefer their result in terms of success, whereas feminine leader prefer quality output (Park, 1996).

The gender difference and cultural difference impact the organization significantly, however it is very important for a leader to react according to the situation because according to fielder's contingent model of leadership, a specific leader is only fit for a specific situation, if a leader effectiveness does not match with the situation he is leading, then it is better to change the leader because the situation is an independent variable that cannot be changed easily (Fiedler, 1972). Therefore, when a leader molds his/her leadership style according to the situation the leader has more chances to be successful.

Strengths and Weaknesses of Transactional Leadership

The transactional leader strictly follows the organizational rules. The organizational culture and norms remain unaffected and employees do not have the fear of change. Quick results for the leader as well as for the followers are expected. Follower knows if he performs he will get the reward. So, the relationship between performance and expected behavior is already known. But, the failure to perform is directly proportional to punishment. If the group member doesn't perform as expected, the transaction will be made even if it… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Globalization That Diversified Cultures.  (2011, April 26).  Retrieved July 22, 2019, from

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"Globalization That Diversified Cultures."  26 April 2011.  Web.  22 July 2019. <>.

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"Globalization That Diversified Cultures."  April 26, 2011.  Accessed July 22, 2019.