Goals and Effects of Animal Experiments and Testing Research Proposal

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¶ … Animal Experiments and Testing

PCRM Position Paper on Animal Research (2004) Animal Experimentation Issues. Adopted by the PCRM Board of Directors 4 June 2004. Online available at http://www.pcrm.org/resch/anexp/position.html

The PCRM Position Paper on Animal Research (2004) states that the primary purpose of medical research is to promote human health, and the most direct research methods focus on the study of human populations, individuals, and tissues. Animal research has been used as an alternative method when the study of humans is deemed impractical or unethical, or when animal biology is of primary interest, and animals are frequently used in biological and medical research, in the testing of drugs and commercial products, and in educational exercises in the sciences." (2004)

Animal Testing (2009) Environmental Working Group. Online available at http://www.ewg.org/node/26355

It is reported by the Environmental Working Group that the problem concerning the needless sacrifice of tens of thousands of animal sin chemical safety tests is not public health advocates but instead "the real problem is the chemical industry, which conducts repeated animal studies that sacrifice hundreds of thousands of animals as a part of a deliberate strategy to delay government action against specific chemicals."

3. De Rolia, Basileio (2007) Research for Reducing Animal Testing. 25 Apr 2007. Midday Express. European Entrepreneur's e-guide. Online available at http://www.businessupdated.com/shownews.asp?news_id=2388&cat=Research+for+reducing+animal+testing

Basileio De Rolia (2007) writes that Europe "over the past 20 years...has taken the lead in replacing animal experimentation in product development through dedicated research." (2007) De Rolia additionally states: "EU funding for the development and quality assessment of new testing techniques is allocated to cutting-edge research programs funded through the EU's Research Framework Programs and coordinated by DG Research and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission." (2007)

4. Roche Position on Animal Testing (2003) Online available at http://www.roche.com/position_on_animal_testing.pdf.

In its 2003 Position on Animal Testing statement the Roche Company stated that many diseases of a serious nature "...AIDS, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson. Disease, hepatitis, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes, are still poorly understood and treated. Therefore, new and more effective therapies and diagnostics are desperately needed to improve the lives of patients affected with these diseases. The appropriate and responsible use of animals is an indispensable part of biomedical research and pharmaceutical product safety testing. Indeed, animal experiments are an integral part of understanding how basic systems of the body work, and what goes wrong with them to cause disease." (Roche, 2003)

5. Bressler, Joseph, and Goldberg, Alan (nd) Achieving the Goals of Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: The TestSmart Developmental Neurotoxicology (DNT) Testing Program.

Bressler and Goldberg state as their objective to: "...bring together stakeholders (test developers, user, regulators and advocates, toxicologists/neuroscientists) to discuss the scientific issue and policies concerning developmental neurotoxicology." (nd) There is a stated need for models that are "more efficient" including: (1) systematic analysis of current models; (2) short-term identity models; and (3) high-through put models. (nd)

6. Myron a. Mehlman, Emil a. Pfitzer, Robert a. Scala and the Committee to Promote Principles of Reduction, Refinement and Replacement of Animal Testing in Industrial Toxicology Laboratories (1989) CELL Biology and Toxicology Journal Vol. 5, No. 3 November 1989.

Mehlman, et al. states that the Committee to Promote Principles of Reduction, Refinement and Replacement of Animal Testing in Industrial Toxicology Laboratories "...was established in 1987 to work toward industrywide improvements in laboratory animal testing methods. The committee's goals are to gather information about effective nonanimal testing techniques and other methods of conserving and improving the care of laboratory animals, to work toward the systematic validation of nonanimal alternatives, and to disseminate useful information about progressive programs and policies throughout the industrial toxicology community." (1989)

7. Pinholster, Ginger (1998) Toxicity Testing in Animals Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 101, Number 4, September 1993. Online available at http://www.ehponline.org/docs/1993/101-4/focus.html

The work of Pinholster (1998) states We have come a long way since the days, early in the century, when Dr. E.V. McCollum, to the amazement and consternation of his fellow Kansan farmers, raided corncribs for mice and rats to use for nutrition experiments. McCollum believed that it was essential to experiment with small animals with a short life span. His rat colony, begun in 1908, was the first in the United States to be used for nutritional investigations, resulting in information on the importance of vitamins and other dietary elements. McCollum, were he alive today, would likely be at the forefront of the movement to develop alternatives to traditional animal models for experimentation and toxicity testing."

8. MacDougall, Raymond (2008) NIH Collaborates with EPA to Improve the Safety Testing of Chemicals - New Strategy Aims to Reduce Reliance on Animal Testing. 14 Feb 2008. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Online available at http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/6427a6b7538955c585257359003f0230/35995a22ceb67467852573f0006559de!OpenDocument

MacDougall (2008) states: "Two NIH institutes have formed a collaboration with the EPA to use the NIH Chemical Genomics Center's (NCGC) high-speed, automated screening robots to test suspected toxic compounds using cells and isolated molecular targets instead of laboratory animals. This new, trans-agency collaboration is anticipated to generate data more relevant to humans; expand the number of chemicals that are tested; and reduce the time, money and number of animals involved in testing."

9. NIH Collaborates with EPA to Improve the Safety Testing of Chemicals (2008) National Institutes of Health News Release. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 14 Feb 2008. Online available at http://www.nih.gov/news/health/feb2008/nhgri-14.htm

The NIH report of February (2008) on chemical testing on animals states: "Data collection to determine chemical toxicity currently relies heavily on whole-animal tests. The growing number of new chemicals, high testing costs and public unease with animal testing led to the search for alternate toxicology testing methods. Quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS), developed at NCGC, increases the rate at which chemicals are tested, and profiles compounds over a wide range of concentrations." (2008)

10. Weekley, L. Bruce, Guittin, Pierre, and Chamberland, Guy (2002) the International Symposium on Regulatory Testing and Animal Welfare: Recommendations on Best Scientific Practices for Safety Evaluation Using Nonrodent Species ILAR Journal V43 Supplement 2002 Regulatory Testing and Animal Welfare Online available at http://dels.nas.edu/ilar_n/ilarjournal/43_supp/v43supWeekley.shtml

The work of Weekley, Guittin, and Chamberland (2002) states: "Training of animals and acclimation to procedures comprise standard practice and are critical to the success of the study. Acclimation to restraint and other experimental procedures is commonly achieved by training dogs in a breeding colony. It is in the interests of good science, as well as animal welfare, that stress be kept to a minimum."

11. Langley, Gill (2008) Replace Animal Experiments in Europe 28th May 2008. Human Society International. Online available at http://www.endeuanimaltests.org/resources/Dr.%20Gill%20Langley_%20Dr%20Hadwen%20Trust%20presentation.pdf

The work of Langley (2008) cites five reasons that are stated to support the prioritization of the replacement of animal experiments in Europe: (1) harmful to sentient animals; (2) methods used violate ethical and societal frameworks; (3) experiments that use other animals as surrogates for humans are highly fallible; (4) Non-animal methods can offer fast, reliable answers to scientific questions that animal tests simply cannot match; and (5) the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the National Academy of Sciences and the Environmental Protection Agency, are implementing new visions for ensuring the safety of consumers - visions that have non-animal methods at their center." (Langley, 2008)

12. The Way Forward (2005) Conference on Alternative Methods to Animal Testing on 7 November 2005 in Brussels Draft Speech for the Round Table -Presentation of the 'Three Rs' Declaration- Online available at http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/events/animal_tests/conference/zourek.pdf

This work states: "Alternative methods promise to provide quality, state-of-the-art, tests that are quicker at lower costs and bring a reduction in the number of animals needed. It has been estimated that the additional needs for animal testing under REACH could be reduced by up to 70% (costs and animals) by using alternative methods." (2005)

13. Balls, M., Zeller, a.M., and Halder, M. (1999) Progress in the Reduction, Refinement and Replacement of Animal Experimentation. Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences. Bologna, Italy, 20 August - 2 September 1999. Elsevier. Online available at http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/bookdescription.cws_home/621021/description#description

Balls, Zeller, and Halder (1999) state New legislation enacted in many countries and regions of the world during the 1980s requires that laboratory animal use be reduced, refined and replaced wherever possible, for ethical and scientific reasons, in line with the Three Rs concept put forward by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Bnurch in 1958, in the Principles of Humane Experimental Technique."

14. Determination and Justification of Animal Numbers (2008) Office of Research University of California, Irvine. 12 May 2008. Online available at http://www.research.uci.edu/ora/acup/animalnumbers.htm

This work states "key principle governing the ethical use of animals in research, testing and teaching is that no animal life is wasted; the number of animals used in each project must be the minimum necessary to obtain valid and meaningful results." (2008)Animal numbers are stated to be determined by "...by a specified student-to-animal ratio, which must be explained in the justification narrative. Animal numbers should be minimized to the fullest extent possible without sacrificing the quality of the hands-on teaching experience for students.' (2008)

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