Green). The Science - Literature Review Essay

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The Science - Literature Review is right after the uncompleted essay

Ironically, it was during the early Middle Ages -- when scientific knowledge was in retreat -- that science initiated a break with philosophy and became its own master (Saliba 32). The Byzantine Empire kept alive the discoveries of Greece and Rome, especially in the areas of science, mathematics, and medicine. They preserved the writings of Galen, Ptolemy, and Aristotle, and religious scholars like Aquinas and Buridan added extensive commentaries. While these were religious men, they were also dedicated to the spirit of early scientific inquiry. Byzantine scholars pursued advances in mathematical knowledge by interacting with Greek and Arabic sources. There was a similar cross-pollination between Europe and the Near East in fields such as zoology and astronomy (Saliba).

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Additionally, it should be noted that the Byzantine Empire was responsible for several other advances in areas not intrinsically related to science, but in realms such as art and sports or in entertainment. Byzantine music played a substantial role in the fostering and development of Greek music (Lang). In particular, the Byzantine Empire's innovation of the quoted sovereign melody is one of its most important artistic contributions to music, which can still be evidenced in several musical compositions today. In fact, many of the Byzantine advances in the realm of music are the basis for what has come to be known as classical music.

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In terms of sports, the Byzantine Empire has long been regarded as one of the most influential factors in the propagation of sports among other empires, most notably among the Roman Empire. It should be remembered that the Byzantine Empire was largely considered to be the Eastern section of the Roman Empire, so this transmission of ideas among such worthy kingdoms should not be altogether surprising. Still, after the decline of the Byzantine under the leadership of Constantinople, there was a new age of recreational and sporting activities which was largely attributed to the Byzantine kingdom (Schrodt).

2. Islamic Golden Age (According to the literature review, please elaborate into550 words)

The Islamic Golden Age was vital in the development of social knowledge and science (Falagas, Zarkadoulia and Samonis 1581 -- 6). During the whole of this period there were important developments in law, literature, technology, sociology, philosophy, navigation, agriculture, industry, and economics. In addition to specific inventions and discoveries, Muslim scientists made key advances in using the scientific method itself, including quantitative, empirical, and experimental research (Durant 162 -- 86). Al-Haytham pioneered experimental physics and biology with his work in optics using the scientific method (Durant 53 -- 5). Many Greek texts were translated into Arabic during this period, which was important for Muslim science but also for the preservation of the Western scientific tradition when it was later returned to Europe through translations. Among other writers and philosophers whose works were thus restored into European culture due to their retranslation from Arabic into native tongues, Aristotle's work in particular would be influential among both Muslims and Europeans (Lebedel 109).

Additionally, it should be noted that the influence of Islam had more overt, direct affects upon Europe, some of which were not quite as beneficial as that of the translation of ancient texts. Islam actually expanded onto the continent in many regions, such as in Sicily and in Spain, each of which were subjugated, colonized and accordingly populated by Muslim forces in approximately 700 A.D., while the southern portion of France came to be populated by large quantities of Muslims around 730 A.D. Interestingly enough, it should be noted that the length of time in which Muslims (principally Moors) controlled and dominated Spain was for a longer length of time than Spain has been free from the subjugation of such Islamic devotees. The effect of the Muslim invasion of the continent would be manifest in more literary accomplishments, as Al Hakam II mad e a point to gather as many books as he could from native Arab countries and shelve them in a library, which would eventually go on to become a translation centre for those same texts to be reworked into Latin (Lindberg 57-8). This particular literary movement was further fuelled by the presence of Arab scholars who migrated to Europe and introduced Greek ideas into their surroundings which they had previously studied in their former countries (Laguhlin 120).

The Islamic world created important institutions. It helped develop the concept of the modern public library, where people wishing to educate themselves could check out manuscripts. The Arabs designed the library system of cataloguing (Francoise 988 -- 91). The library became a centre for scientific discussion. Perhaps most importantly, the medieval Islamic world also invented the modern university and its system of diplomas and form of professorial instruction and lecturing, which later spread to Europe. The influence of Islam in the realm of science was significant as well. Islamic medicine helped pioneer several advancements in the field that were not accounted for in Europe, which still held onto a lot of superstitious tradition during this time period. One specific example of innovations in the field of medicine attributed to Islamic doctors and scientists include Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, which was published in approximately 1025 A.D. And contained the important concept that infectious diseases could be spread through the air, as well as other salient principles including methods for testing new medicines. (Tschanz),

3. Crusade (According to the literature review, please elaborate into 150 words)

The Crusades were instrumental to Europe scientifically, since through extensive contact with the Arabic world during the Islamic Golden Age the mathematics, medicine, and social institutions of the Arabic world were discovered by Europeans. Algebra and optics became known in the West. Older Western traditions were reintroduced through the acquisition and translation of Arabic texts that preserved Greek and Roman science. This was also a time when military and naval technology experienced tremendous growth given the conditions of warfare that drove the Crusades. Yet as the following quote sufficiently evidences, both Europeans as well as residents of the Islamic Middle and the Near East benefited from the exchange of culture, heritage, and scientific achievement brought about by the Crusades. "The Crusades brought about results of which the popes had never dreamed, and which were perhaps the most, important of all. They re-established traffic between the East and West, which, after having been suspended for several centuries, was then resumed with even greater energy; they were the means of bringing from the depths of their respective provinces and introducing into the most civilized Asiatic countries Western knights, to whom a new world was thus revealed, and who returned to their native land filled with novel ideas.... If, indeed, the Christian civilization of Europe has become universal culture, in the highest sense, the glory redounds, in no small measure, to the Crusades. (The New Catholic Encyclopaedia 508)."

4. Carolingian Renaissance

(According to the literature review, please elaborate into300 words)

The Carolingian Renaissance, which commonly refers to a number of educational reforms and revitalization of culture evinced approximately during the reign of Charlemagne was noted for its advancements in many diverse fields, not the least of which include astronomy, philosophy, literature, art, architecture, and more. Charlemagne made a considerable effort to propagate the spread of knowledge about his subjects, the majority of which were illiterate and spoke languages which were incongruous with those which the majority of books were written in. Consequently, the king busied himself with the creation of a number of schools and learning institutions, which were also established to attract as wide an array of scholars as possible to his kingdom (Scott 30). New curricula was subsequently engendered to accommodate these institutions, including workbooks, textbooks, as well as the trivium (which was comprised of areas of study including rhetoric, logic and grammar) and the quadrivium (which was comprised of geometry, arithmetic, music and astronomy) as the basis of education (Cantor 189). It is also significant to note that the majority of such schools were under the control of ecclesiastic facilities, as well as of noble courts (Butzer).

In addition to establishing a tradition of scholarship which that of contemporary times has been implied to descend from, Charlemagne supplemented his establishment of formal educational facilities with the founding of several libraries throughout the kingdom (Dutton). Students were urged to take up the pursuit of liberal arts, which was frequently contrasted with specialized fields of study and came to include a variety of subjects such as science, math, literature, history, as well as the study of language. The primary connotation with the term liberal arts is that the student studying such subjects is "free" to pursue a number of fields, as opposed to honing his or her erudition in one particular area of expertise (Marrou 266-267).

5. Romanesque Period (According to the literature review, please elaborate into 300 words)

Scholars now often call the twelfth century a European renaissance. The knowledge contained in classical texts was rediscovered in new Latin translations from… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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