Term Paper: Groundwater &amp Hydrology Water

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[. . .] The volume of water supply available in your well is dependent on your choice regarding the structure of the well prepared. There are two categories of aquifers viz. unbounded or unbounded. Unbounded aquifers are water aquifers that remain at atmospheric pressure. Bound aquifers are covered by a resistant stratum like clay or shale that restricts the reverse flow of water. The covering bound layer permits aquifers to generate force that effects in artisan aquifers. A majority of the bound aquifers are in fact semi-bound since the bounded stratum is somewhat porous. (Moench, 2004)

Darcy's law

The French Engineer Henri Darcy formulated the Darcy's Law in 1856 as a mathematical reorientation. The availability of water in the French city Dijon was found to be worst in Europe at the beginning of the 19th Century. Henri Darcy, a civil engineer being native to the city of Dijon became determinant to improve the situation. A French professor Fourier assisted Darcy by teaching his law along with Poiseuille's and Ohm's laws. The Greek hydrological cycle between sea and the continents were still under confusion in the hydrogeology during the period. He engaged himself in the research of infiltration of water through sediments of sands and pebbles. The law depicting mass flow of liquids through porous elements was derived with the use of simple and sharp equipment. This law of Darcy depicting the flow of liquids in the materials constituted one among the famous four other three being, the law for flow of heat propounded by Fourier, the law of electric current propounded by Ohm, the Law of gas diffusion propounded by Fick. (Freeze; Cherry, 1979)

The proof for linear flow of liquids vis-a-vis head gradients were established through his experiments published in earlier works. Even though the property of non-linear flow was depicted in his earlier works of 1857 it was not experimented specifically in respect of the permeable media in laminar circumstances. Well contented with its investigative observations and derivations its association to the physical equations were not necessitated by him. Taking into consideration a nearby spring for making available fresh water Darcy made an effort for constructing a network of drainage and supply pipes. It took one and half year to build the entire network. This effort made provision of modern water supply system available to the small town Dijon even two decades prior to that of in Paris. (Hubbert, 1956) www.dekker.com/servlet/product/DOI/101081EEWS120010271/object/references.html;DekkerSessionID=AU2h5z2N0ckQhbBVDHjdtgOWGOCDpq6hRr2GqPTNjk2nL7qmgx0V!-902510077!-1062693109!7601!-1!-609546138!-1062693110!7601!-1

The law of the Darcy is a generalization drawn for depicting the flow of liquids through permeable materials. The law strives to establish a proportional relationship between the rate of liquid flow and the energy gradient inherent to the fluid. The rate of flow of water through a pipe is depicted by the law as a proportion to the difference in height of water at two extremes of the pipe and also observed as inversely proportional to the length of the pipe. The rate of water flow through pipes between two points can be estimated through the Darcy's Law. The Darcy's Law is considered as the primary tool in depicting the transmission of liquids within Earth's Crust. Darcy deduced a coefficient, K to depict the proportional flow terming it as hydraulic conductivity. The coefficient depicts constancy of the proportional relationship between the porous medium and the liquid moving through it. (Hubbert, 1956)

The simple method of measuring the hydraulic approach of the groundwater is to digging a well up to the desired depth and estimating the water level. By casing the well with impervious elements and allowing opening only at the bottom, the water level measures the hydraulic approach at the bottom. Since the approach is estimated in relation to an arbitrary unit such as a common ground level or sea level, such derivations is considered as an arbitrary measure of the inherent energy of the liquid. Forecasting of the movement in the submerged liquids is not inhibited by this since the occurrence of the fluid motion is taken into account only as a relation to the head gradients. In testimony to the truism of demarcation of the water level to a constant potential energy the level of rise of underwater in a well is termed as potentiometer surface which is equivalent to the hydraulic head. The coefficient K. depicting constancy of the proportionality is influenced by the properties of the permeable medium as well as that of the fluids. (Cesare, 2001)

To illustrate, a diminishing velocity is observed in case of viscous fluid like heavy oil instead of water irrespective of assuming the same permeable medium. Conversely substitution of high porous materials like coarse-grained gravel instead of fine grained sand the velocity is observed to increase even if there is no change in the properties of the fluid. Several constants that relates to the properties of the medium and the properties of fluid exert influences on the coefficient K. The Law since its inception is successfully experimented with all the Newtonian fluids. It is also observed that it is also equally successful under the conditions of unsaturated and multiphase flow as is in case of saturated conditions. The Law thus administers the movement of groundwater through the porous materials as well as the flow of other liquids such as petroleum through the permeable media. The uniqueness of the Law formulated by Darcy in comparison to that of other scientists such as Ohm and Fourier flows from the fact that it is a study for providing solutions and developed for engineering motives rather than simple interpretation of the Laws of Nature. (Hubbert, 1956)

Measures of water quantity

The Great Lakes of the United States is the greatest source of fresh water consisting of about ninety-percent of total national water resource and about twenty percent of that of the world. The water levels at the Great Lakes and the St. Clair is taken as the fundamental unit for measurement of the quantity of water. The consideration of water level is made in relation to the geological environment and hydrological cycle. Individual assessment of underwater and surface water is not possible because of the interdependency of both. The variations in the total water balance of the area causes similar variations in the underwater level, surface water levels, water levels in streams etc. As a principle the amount of ejection of water equates to the amount of replenishment assuming a natural state of affairs. The extraction of underwater and variations in stream flow have a tremendous impact on the ground water levels. (Barringer; Dunn; Battaglin; Vowinkel, 1990)

Taking into consideration the declining water level in the water basin decrease in previous water flow from the water basin, the increment in replenishment amount, individually or in combination determines the total extraction from the water pool. With the initiation of pumping the extraction of water from the reservoirs begin consequently resulting in a decline in the water level of water basin. There is an incessant decrease in the water level so long as the amount of extraction is not equilibrated by an equivalent decrease in the previous flow or an increase in the replenishment or by both. The nearness of pumping location, the intensity of pumping, and the variations in stream flow determines the impact of pumping on streams. (Freeze; Cherry, 1979)

The intensity of pumping in relation to the depth of water level, geological diagram of water basin, and hydraulic responsiveness of the water basin is taken into consideration while developing the ground water system. The addition to under water potential is dependent upon the hydrologic factors which is a long-term process. Equilibrating the extraction and replenishment of ground water by development of ground water system exhibits a long-term phenomenon sometimes observed to be more than that of the planning period allowing extraction of ground water continuously awaiting equilibrium by the system. (Thomas, 1951)

Utilization of groundwater

The significance of groundwater is gaining notice in an over populated world. The utilization of water is important in our day-to-day routine. The preservation and judicious utilization of aquifers would extensively help in the betterment of human life and marine ecology. In several regions of the globe, groundwater is the most important resource of drinking water. Apart from this, it is also a major resource for the farming and the industrialized segment. Groundwater has a vital part to play in the hydrological cycle. Since it is a vital and fundamental component of the water cycle, its presence is dependent on the rains and recharge situations. Groundwater is vital for those areas receiving scanty downpour as well. It is the most unadulterated and dependable resource of available freshwater. Just three percent of the Earth's freshwater are reserved in streams, ponds and reservoirs. The rest 97% of freshwater is stored beneath the earth's surface. (Cesare, 2001)

Water is clearly an important resource of the United States of America. Out of this, ninety percent is groundwater. Groundwater can even be used for the manufacture of power as geothermal energy and also as energy savings by utilizing heat pumps. In… [END OF PREVIEW]

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