Literature Review Chapter: Harmonic Accompaniment on the Development

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[. . .] For comprehensive music curriculum there must be improvisation.through that children can express their feeling and thoughts on music.The child should be in apposition to express themselves by words.Due to instruction children are able to: improve pattern of tones (Balasko 1987);used harmonic purposes and retain tonality and key while improvising (Giulbault2004);coming up with music that have musical structure; retain meter and steady beat (Kalmer 1987)

Guilbault's research was to find out if root melody accompaniment is added to instruction of the song which may interfear with tonal improvisation children.It further pointed those children who finds song instruction with melody of the root accompaniment; used implied harmonic purposes and retain tonal and key when improvising. Journal of research in music education says that a child applies ability and function of harmonic to retain key and tonality while improving xylophones.Kalmer and Balasko (1987) analysed pre-school children when making xylophones with local available materials and playing it to identify the number of responses and ideas.

According to Partchey's (1987) research was of unity, identifiable rhythm pattern, steady pulse and variety which are childs ability.Form, pitch, duration and intestify was done by Wig (1981).The outcome of the research by Guilbault (2004) found the additional root melody accompaniment to song instruction affects child tonal improvisation described that achild who got song instruction and root melody accompaniment stabilize the key and tonal along with implied harmonic functions on improvising importantly more than those who had not received instruction.It was only used for specific young ages population.

To identify whether there was pre-existing music aptitude children of first grade, second grade and third grade before treatment were used on the rhythm subtest and tonal of the Primary Measures of Music Audition (PMMA).This was done by (Gordon 1979).This was because of different on control group and treatment since children with lower aptitude may not have performed as the ones in high music aptitude (Gordon2007).This made the sub-test for tonal and rhythm of Intermediate Measures of Music Audiation (IMMA)which were done before treatment to fourth grade, fifth grade and sixth grade.For one had not been asingle student which had experience with improvising before, as it grow through sequenced learning

The first learning of instruction is based on primary on music learning theory which involves orff activities.These are made up of instruction of tonal pattern,,identifying of tonal and rhythm pattern function, tonal and rhythm pattern instruction, singing, playing pitch and unpitched instrument, chanting amongst others. Improvisation activities involving control and treatment was made up of events containing tonic and dominant function pattern in major and harmonic minor tonalities which were either same or different;exploitation events;conversational improvisation;using major and harmonic minor tonalities when singing new ending or changing part of known song.On the treatment group, the sixth grade class assigned one randomly but the rest of the grade first, second, third, fourth and fifth were assigned two per grade.They involved them in a root melody accompaniment which was presented by researcher when student sang pitch instrument;by student as researcher present s song;using voice recordings;by student when another one is presenting a song.The control group had one random assigned to first, third, fourth, fifth and sixth grade class where two random assigned to second grade class.Everything about singing was done in cappella.

The only different instruction which was being given to the students at the grades was use of root melody accompaniment other instructions was same. When the test was done of the post instructional performance was that the results were there was no significance differences from PMMAandIMMMA composite aptitude scores between the treatment group and control in every level of gradesThe effect of harmonic accompaniment on singing achievement involves vocal development where the effect of diverse harmonic accompaniment has been based on the six grade students where the sub-test was administered.This is according to Petzold (1966).This is to check the potential to sing melodic fragment accurately.The research involved three accompaniment types: primary chords within simple chord progression, sustained single chords and secondary chords on inversion within complex chord progression.From not specific method of choosing,540 children were taken randomly.Three kinds of harmony test were created.

The first one, stimulus which was presented with a melodic line with harmonic accompaniment which the child was to hear and to react by singing the melodic piece presently heard.Without having the melodic line of the harmonic accompaniment, the child was to respond.The second one though like the first one, the child was to reply while not using harmonic accompaniment.The third one had neither response nor stimulus from harmonic treatment.

The research found easy chords of tonic, sub-dominant and dominant used had greater singing for children.According to Petzold (1996) children are able to sing perfectly when an accompaniment by easy (i),(iv) and (v) in his five-year longitudinal study.The analysis was that harmonic accompaniment offer the tonality and can be reinforce being aware of the singer of the tonal center of a song.This analysis is backed up by Gordon (1997) and Azzara (1999) in their research.This was different from Gordon (1982)research which involved music aptitude test and of the latest.From the latest research learning, playing and singing using xylophones (bamboo) is given a chance to the children.The research was taken to have 12 weeks music lesson plan from preface for reference for it had no lesson plan giving doubt whether all music instruction was given to the children.

From the research done by Sterling (1984) singing posture, vocal breathing training and vocal warm up had no instruction unlike present study had three minutes at the beginning of each lesson of vocal techniques as studied by Guilbout (2003).He considered additional root melody accompaniment as harmonic accompaniment effect on song instruction on the development of tonal aptitude, tonal achievement and tonal improvisation of first grade and kindergarten children. The outcome showed that song instruction with a root melody accompaniment to developmental tonal aptitude and tonal achievement of young children had no importance.Because song instruction got by children with root accompaniment from root melody made performance of these children higher than the ones which had no root melody accompaniment.Most of the research was based on the music aptitude development of a child.Though there was different in the basis of the research like present study never used pre-test and post-test as indicated by Gordon (1982) they believed that they had given a sense which is enough to conclude the effect of bamboo (xylophones) as harmonic accompaniment.


The ability for one to realize and improvise the tonal as affected by harmonic accompaniment depend on how different stages of life received instruction on song with a root melody accompaniment.Activities at different stages contribute a lot to the ability of children and the skills which children can perform.Instrument contribute a lot to the significant growth and development of body kinesthetic intelligent skillfully.It is important that the knowledge and the skills that a child needs for them to have achievement in singing and improvisation activities is done at the early stages of life (young) which is recommended not to exceed the age of nine.Instrument makes the teaching easier for young ages for the teacher, this is because even though they find it hard to improvisation activities theorically, they under stand best when involving them in learning practically and giving them a chance to interact more with the instrument.

Xylophones contribute a lot to identifying different tonal variation.As they enjoy music, they develop senses of timing, ability to train response to be as reflex making xylophones as effective when used in learning.Different researches' done by researchers arrives at a common idea about the effects of xylophones harmonic accompaniment on the tone achievement and tone improvisation of young children;this qualify xylophones harmonic accompaniment to have positive effect on music achievement of young children.

Work cited

ATHERTON JS (2010) Learning and Teaching; Piaget's developmental theory [Online] UK: Available: Accessed: 27 January 2011

Azzara, C.D. (1999). An aural approach to improvisation. Music Educators Journal, 86(3), 21 -- 25.

Gardner, Howard (1983; 1993) Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences, New York: Basic Books.

Gordon, E.E. (1979). Primary Measures of Music Audiation. Chicago: GIA Publications.

Gordon, E.E. (1982). Intermediate Measures of Music Audiation. Chicago: GIA Publications.

Gordon, E.E. (2007). Learning sequences in music: A contemporary music learning theory. Chicago:GIA Publications.

Guilbault, D.M. (2004). The effect of harmonic accompaniment on the tonal improvisations of childrenin kindergarten and first grade. Journal of Research in Music Education, 52, 64 -- 76.

Kalmer, M., & Balasko, G. (1987). "Musical mother tongue" and creativity in preschool children's melody improvisations. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 91, 77 -- 89

Partchey, K.C. (1974). The effects of feedback, models, and repetition on the ability to improvise melodies (Doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1973). Dissertation Abstracts International, 35 (01A), 240.

Petzold, R.G. (1966). Auditory perception of musical sounds by children in the first six grades. Madison: University of Wisconsin (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 010-297).)

Sterling Pamela Ann.(1984)'A Development Study Of The Effects Of Accompanying… [END OF PREVIEW]

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