Health Care Disparities Race Related Research Paper

Pages: 23 (6959 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 5  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Junior  ·  Topic: Healthcare

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Their health conditions as compared to that of white women are quite adverse. One of the examples of their unfavorable health conditions is the high maternal mortality rate. The maternal mortality rate is highest among western nations. African women die four times more during child birth as compared to white women. This is because the colored, especially those belonging to low income families, do not have an access to the facilities that are necessary to get positive birth outcomes.

Medical Errors:

The medical errors in United States health care system cause about 44 to 98 thousand deaths. In addition to that, these errors also incur a loss of dollar 25 billion each year. Unfortunately due to high racial discrepancies most of such disadvantages are tolerated by the minorities. The minorities are comparatively more affected by surgical errors and complications. For example, blacks and Hispanics are more likely to be subjected to death due to errors during hospitalization than whites. Moreover, minorities are subjected to biased practices for example; black children face twice as more restraints while getting admitted at a psychiatric hospital than Whites. The situation is even worse in the case of Hispanics who face such restraints 70% more than whites. (Mead, Cartwright-Smith, Jones, Ramos & Siegel, 2008)

Timely Treatment:

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Timely treatment of diseases can avert many deaths and they can also prevent prolonged disabilities. But unfortunately minorities are usually subjected to late treatments. Minorities are also likely to suffer from diseases that are caused by late treatment. For example, there are a very few chances that minorities may get the same or next day appointment. Most of the time they are given sixth or seventh day appointment. This delay in appointment can worsen the disease and can even cause death. However, it is also observed that this disparity decreases with the increase in the income. (Mead, Cartwright-Smith, Jones, Ramos & Siegel, 2008)

Research Paper on Health Care Disparities Race Related Assignment

In minorities the diseases that can be prevented and cured by early diagnosis are not properly analyzed and this delay in analysis causes death. For example, Hispanics, among all the minorities, are least likely to be diagnosed in case of cancer and colorectal cancer. (Mead, Cartwright-Smith, Jones, Ramos & Siegel, 2008)

Patient Centered System:

In order to get better outcomes the health care system should be patient centered. A patient centered care system however, requires fluent and efficient communication between patients and doctors. Minorities have complains in this regard too as most of the blacks and Hispanics complain that are not able to communicate easily with their doctors. People who are not native English speakers claimed that their doctors do not listen to what they say and they do not even explain things clearly to them. In addition to that they also reported that their doctors do not respect what they say.

Chronic Heart Diseases:

The major and leading cause of deaths in the United States of America is Heart diseases. The minorities again suffer from heart diseases disproportionately. According to a report of Centers for Disease Control (CDC), in the year 2006 Chronic Heart Diseases (CHDs) were the cause of about 425,425 deaths of people belonging to all age groups. Most of the people dying due to chronic heart diseases belonged to black racial group. The rate of white people dying due to CHD was greater than that of American Indians. About 137,119 died due to stroke according to this report. The rate of Blacks dying due to heart stroke was 32.7% more than that of whites. Hispanic had lower rates than whites. Premature deaths due to strokes were also analyzed under this report and the data recorded was as follows, about 39% of black women died before reaching seventy five years of age which is quite high as compared to 17.3% of white women. The percentage of black men dying prematurely due to stroke was 60.7 whereas, 31.1% white men died before reaching the age of seventy five years due to stroke. ("CDC health disparities," 2011)

Asthma:

About 7.8% of the total United States population was suffering from Asthma when examined during the year 2006 and 2007. The prevalence of Asthma in racial minorities was greater than that of Whites. The percentage of multicultural people suffering from Asthma was noted to be 14.8%. About 14.2% of Puerto Rican Hispanics people were suffering from Asthma. The rate of Asthma among blacks was 9.5% and Whites had the lowest rate of Asthma which was 7.8%. It was also reported that women with a rate of 8.6% suffered more from Asthma than men who had a rate of 6.9%. The people belonging to different economic statuses also had varying rates of Asthma with poor people having a rate of 11.2%, those who were nearly poor had a rate of 8.4% and non-poor people or stable people had a rate of 7.0%. ("CDC health disparities," 2011)

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV):

According to the current analysis about eleven hundred thousand people in the United States of America are infected with the dangerous Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The amount that became infected with this virus each year ranges between 48,200 to 64,500. In case of AIDS racial discrimination in health care system was quite clear. The percentage of black people infected with HIV is 1831%, for Hispanics the rate was 359%, the rate of infection among white people was 266%. The rate was 310% for people belonging to multiple races. American Indians had a rate of 138%. However, Asians had the lowest rate of human immunodeficiency virus, which was 6%. It is quite evident from the above figures that apart from Asians all other racial and ethnic minorities continue to suffer AIDS at a rate which is quite higher than that of Whites. ("CDC health disparities," 2011)

Diabetes:

Diabetes is one of the major but preventable health problems in the United States of America. It has been increasing since last few years and it was noted that the racial and ethnic minorities and the groups that are not socioeconomically stable suffer most of its adverse effects. About 7.7% of White men were diagnosed with diabetes whereas; the rate for black men was 9.6%. The same condition prevailed among the women as the rate for white women was 5.4%, for black women it 7% and the highest rate prevailed among Hispanic women, which was 14.6%. ("CDC health disparities," 2011)

Hypertension:

An analysis was made to survey people suffering from hypertension. The report recorded the following results; the rate for white people suffering from hypertension was 28.8%. About 25.5% of Mexicans were diagnosed with. The highest rate of hyper tension prevailed among Blacks or African-Americans, shooting up to 42%. ("CDC health disparities," 2011)

Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and Health:

Upon analysis it was reported that in the United States health care system there is an inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and health. An increase in economic status leads towards a decrease in health issues whereas, a decrease in socioeconomic status leads toward an increase in health issues. A persuasive indicator of this relation is the mortality rates. It was revealed by the data of National Longitudinal Mortality Study that an increase in the level of education and income is related with a decrease in mortality rates. It is observed that black people, both male and female, who have an annual income of dollar 5000 have mortality two times more than those who have a yearly income of dollar 50,000 and more. Researches have also indicated that there is a negative relation between psychiatric problems and socio economic status. It was reported that high socioeconomic status is associated with less psychiatric problems and low socioeconomic status was associated with more psychiatric problems. The preceding pattern was noticed in both black and white people. This indirect relation between health issues and socio economic status has been increasing greatly and the reason behind it is the difference that low and high socioeconomic groups face while getting treated, assessing medical treatment and getting appropriate care. It is, for example, observed that mortality rates due to breast cancer among low socioeconomic groups are far greater than that of high socioeconomic groups. (Williams, Collins, 1995)

Correlation between Race and Socioeconomic Status:

The primary cause of disparities in the United States health care system is the difference of socioeconomic status of different racial groups. Race and socioeconomic status have a strong relationship. It was observed that the poverty rate among white people is 11%. Blacks had a poverty rate of 33% and the poverty rate among Hispanics is 29%. It was also recorded that children who are born in families, which have an annual income of dollar 10,000 or less, are 4.6 times more likely to be affected with poor birth health than the children who are born in families with an annual income of dollar 35,000 or more. Moreover, it was also found that among all the socioeconomic levels black… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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