Term Paper: Health Politics

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[. . .] 8. "Four Common Demand Shifters and how each factor Shifts Demand"

Four common demand shifters are as follows:

Change in number of consumers,

Change in consumer's preferences and tastes,

Change in consumer income, and Change in price of related good such as substitutes or complement.

An increase in the number of consumer for a particular product could lead to an increase in demand for that product. For example, few days before Christmas, there is a generally increase in the demand for the gift items because the number of consumers who purchase the items increase. If there is a change in consumer tastes and preferences, there will be a change in the demand for that product. For example, if tastes for short skirts increase, the demand for short skirts will increase in the market.

Change in consumer income is another shifter of demand. An increase in the income of consumers will make the demand for goods and services to increase. However, decrease in income level will lead to a decline in demand. Change in the price of complement or substitute goods could increase or decrease demand. If two types of goods are bought together, increase one type of good will lead to the increase in the complement goods. For example, increase in the price of hamburger will lead to a decline in the demand for hamburger buns.

Part Two

1. "Entitlement Program and Block Grant"

Entitlement program is the legal right and some benefit available to people who meet statutory eligibility criteria. For example, Medicare, federal grants, disability benefits, veteran benefits, old age assistance and farm subsidies are the examples of entitlement program. (Mashaw, 1996). On the other hand, a block grant is the federal fund received by the local governments to develop their communities. Typically, block grants allow local governments to design community programs to improve consumer access to social services. However, accountability is a major challenge to block programs. The Department of Housing & Urban Development has used block grants program to fund community development initiatives using the CDBG (Community Development Block Grant). (Waller, 2005).

2. "Medicaid, SCHIP and Medicare SCHIP or Entitlement Program"

Medicaid is an example of block grant. The U.S. government uses Medicaid to assist less privileged people who are otherwise not able to afford health insurance to have access to health insurance program. Medicaid is the third largest insurance program and cover 15% of the U.S. population. For example, Medicaid covers one out four children in Oregon. SCHIP (State Children's Health Insurance Program) is also an example of block grant, however, it is smaller program jointly sponsored by the federal and state governments aimed at increasing health coverage among children. (Oregon Department of Human Services, 2008). However, Medicare is an entitlement program that focuses on older population. Medicare is a health insurance program for people aged 65 or older.

3. "Who is covered by Medicaid?"

Medicaid covers people with low-income bracket in the United States. Medicaid also covers people of all ages whose their income and resources are not sufficient to pay for healthcare. In the United States, Medicaid is the largest government funding for health-related services for low-income people.

4. "Difference between Medicare funding and Medicaid and SCHIP funding"

Both the federal government and state government participate in funding of Medicaid and both federal and state government jointly funds Medicaid. However, only the federal government funds the Medicare. Similar to Medicaid, SCHIP is jointly funded by both the federal and state governments. While Medicare is solely funded by the federal government, both federal and state governments participate in the funding the Medicaid and SCHIP.

5. "Impact of being Uninsured on Individual Health Impact"

Uninsured people are people often unable to pay for healthcare services. Thus, uninsured people are less likely to receive adequate healthcare, and the issue may lead to a lower quality of life, and increased mortality. Moreover, uninsured people are less likely to receive adequate preventive care. (Milibank & McWilliams, 2009).

6. "Two Reason U.S. National Health Reform became a Heated Debate for Decades"

The first reason is that high-income people generally believe that the government will use a taxpayer's money to implement the health reform. People believe that the money to be used for the health reform should be used for more economic need such as generating employment for people. Moreover, Physicians, and political advocacy group claim that healthcare reform will bring out the lower quality of healthcare for people leading to increase in mortality rate.

7. "Meaning of no-duty-to-treat principle"

"No-duty-treat" principle is the U.S. law based on the Supreme Court decision that healthcare provider, either institutions or individuals, do not have obligation to deliver healthcare services to others. The U.S. common law reveals that healthcare providers do not have the obligation to deliver a healthcare to people even under emergence situation.

Conversely, the same common law principle imposes an obligation to take care of an individual with a health risk. Moreover, Good Samaritan law is another law that provides narrow scope to the "no-duty-treat" principle. While many states encourage voluntary participation of healthcare to people at the accident site, however, the same law allows physician not to deliver the healthcare at the accident site for the fear of open charge of malpractice. Similar to other states, Illinois protects physicians from charge who opt not to treat accident victims at the accident site due to lack equipment to carry out the treatment.

8. "Origin and key functions of EMTALA"

EMTALA ("Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act") is the U.S. Act passed by the congress in 1986 that required hospital to deliver healthcare to anyone in the need of emergency healthcare regardless of his legal status, citizenship or ability to pay. However, EMTALA is covered by the common law to provide emergence healthcare for any person who shows up in the emergency room. Participating hospitals are the hospitals that accept payments from the CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services) or hospitals covered by Department of Health & Human Services.

9. "Determination of Federal Court of Appeal in the case of Canterbury vs. Spence"

Canterbury filed a case against Dr. Spence for failing to disclose the risk of disability inherent after the operation. In the Federal Court of Appeal, the judge ruled out the charge filed against Dr. Spence on the ground that the Appellant failed to produce medical evidence that Dr. Spence acted negligently at the time of operation, which could warrant serious paralysis of Canterbury. Thus, the Court of Appeal did not see the Canterbury's mother contention because Dr. Spence did not have the duty to disclose the risk associated with the operations.

10. "U.S. Supreme Court Abortion in Planned Parenthood v Casey and articulated alteration of abortion regulation Roe v. Wade"

The Planned Parenthood v. Casey was the Supreme Court decided case in the United States where there was a challenge on Pennsylvania state regulations on abortion. The Supreme Court upholds the constitutional right to carry out an abortion. The Supreme Court decision for the Planned Parenthood v Casey altered abortion regulation under Roe v. Wade. Under Roe v. Wade, five provisions of Pennsylvania Abortion Control Act of 1982 were being challenged as unconstitutional. Typically, Roe v. Wade recognizes the constitution right to have an abortion protected:

Under the Act, doctors are to inform women about detrimental consequence of abortion procedure to their health.

Under the spousal notice rule, women are required to give prior notice to their husbands.

The consent rules and parental notification are required for minors prior to an abortion.

There should be a 24-hour hold before an abortion.

11. Origin of the Professional Standard of Care. (b) Two key Evidentiary Evidence of the Standard

The origin standard of care started since 1960 where American medicine fought to control the standard of healthcare delivered to patients. In the 1990s, American medicine mounted unprecedented attack to make laws in order to articulate medical practice guideline to enhance practice of care in the United States medical practice. In 1989, U.S. congress created the AHCPR (Agency for Health Care Policy and Research) to enhance the quality and effective health care in the United States. In 1993, the President Clinton adopted a health reform plan. (Mehlman, 2012). However, President Obama intiated an healthcare policy by signing a healthcare reform into law known as Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010.

12. "Most Significant Changes to the U.S. Healthcare Landscape from Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010."

The Obamacare known as PPACA (Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act) is the U.S. federal statue generally known as ACA (Affordable Care Act) signed into law in 2010, which represent the most significant overall healthcare reform in the United States. The aim of PPACA is to enhance quality of healthcare delivery and represent a significant healthcare overhaul since Medicare and Medicaid. The ACA aims to increase the quality of healthcare delivery as well as providing affordable health care to people. Typically, the law requires the insurance companies to cover all… [END OF PREVIEW]

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