Literature Review Chapter: Health Risk Behaviors Drug

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[. . .] Similarly, O'Donnell and colleagues (2008) found that early alcohol use is relatively overlooked and few parents in that sample believed that their child might have had a drink. Greater15parental awareness occurred with older teenagers and in households that communicated more frequently.

Parental denial

Not only are parents unaware of their child's drinking they also seem to be in denial about their child's drinking and unwilling to accept the truth about their child's actions. Parents of teens are more than three times more likely to believe that their child's friends engage in substance use behaviors than they were to believe their own child engaged in these behaviors. Research has shown that parents are much more likely to believe that their children's peers drink and drive than they are that their own child would drink and drive. The same survey reported that only a small percentage believed that their child had ever come home intoxicated even after admitting to being at a party with alcohol.

Focus on Suggestion to reduce Drug Abuse in Teenagers

Treatment of substance dependence is a complex, yet well-researched topic. An examination of the literature reveals that attempts have been made to apply many different therapeutic modalities to substance abuse treatment. Several authors collectively posited that relational and social connections are essential to the recovering addict's success. Research carried out by these authors has found that addicted persons who possess strong social connections or friends were found to be staying in the treatment for long period maintaining the treatment effects as compared to those addicts who did not possess several friends or social associations.

Balloon, Kirst, and Smith (2006) pointed out that to involve family in the treatment and make it advantageous for patients, they should trust the substance abuser, should understand the situation, and also must provide absolute support. Rotunda, West, and O'Farrell also posited that involving partners in the treatment process, in order to reduce enabling behaviors, improved one year abstinence results.

Palmer and Daniluk (2010) have suggested many ways to recover addicts by using their connections with others. These suggestions include "losses/gains, support/discouragement, understanding/misunderstanding, belonging/not belonging, meaning/meaninglessness, and hope/hopelessness."

Palmer and Daniluk (2010) asserted that the loss of relationship with the other half, associate, child, or other family member might be considered as a grave impede in recovering from addiction. Isolation is also experienced as a consequence of the recovering addict's own actions. This reaction is shown either by keeping people away from themselves or they develop a sagacity of loneliness and do not try to connect with other people including family members, friends, or their fellow addicts. Though mostly these reactions are considered negative while they are occurring, individuals sometimes experience a "double-edge," in that the losses provide a necessary "wake-up call" for the individuals to cease their using behavior.

Palmer and Daniluk (2010) stated that interactions that recovering individuals perceive as helpful and facilitative to the healing process comprise of a sense that others around them believe in them, a sense of encouragement from others, and also that others treat them with.

A skilled counselor won't tell you what to do. They sort of ask questions to draw it out of you so that you can discover it for yourself. Then you can own it. It's not like a foreign substance in your body… It makes sense because you helped create it. (p. 203)

Conversely, individuals whom the recovering addict believes at one time that they are supportive in leaving substance abuse but afterwards proved themselves to be unhelpful. These are the persons who are destructive in their way of life and they are also indulged in substance abuse. The authors' point here is that discouragement can come from enabling and co-dependent relationships with individuals who try to undermine efforts at recovery, and often these individuals are substance-dependent themselves.

According to Palmer and Daniluk (2010), individuals report that, mostly they consider that the persons with a history of addiction can better understand their feelings and situations. On the other hand, if they feel that others are judging them is a great hindrance in their recovery. (It is important to note here that the authors are reporting their research participants' perceptions, which may or may not accurately represent any objective reality for the research participants.)

Additionally, Reid, Teesson, Sannibale, Matsuda, and Haber (2005) reported that therapeutic treatments that encouraged compliance with treatment (in the case of Reid's research, compliance with pharmacological interventions) improved abstinence outcomes.

Deficiencies in the Reviewed Research

One major deficiency in reviewed research shows that there is no single study to compare and to find the differences level of perceptions of teens and parents. There is a great deal of research which shows the connection between parents' role and adolescents' drug and alcohol use. Some studies have focused on adults' behaviors' others have explored parents' involvement and knowledge. Some also have explored parents' perceptions' about their children's drug abuses.

Need for Further Study

Each research study reviewed above suggested the need for further research. There has been a great focus on social connections particularly parents roles and its association with adolescents" drug abuse. Many factors seem to contributing the prevalence of drug and alcohol use among teenagers and adults. These include 'teenagers' age', lack of parental knowledge and denial on part of parents. All these research suggest that there is a need to further explore this phenomenon in particular the difference that is present among the perceptions of teenagers and adults and their parents about the drug and alcohol use.


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Balloon, B., Kirst, M., & Smith, P.(2006) Youth help-seeking expectancies and their relation to help-seeking behaviours for substance use problems. Addiction Research and Theory, 12(3), 241-260.

Bernice Young, 2011 Drug use highest among American Indian teens, lower among blacks published online in November 2011 Accessed 11 November, 2011

Bottlender, M., & Soyka, M.(2005) Outpatient alcoholism treatment: Predictors of outcome after 3 years. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 80(1), 83-89.

Caldeira, K.M., Kasperski, S.J., Sharma, E., Vincent, K.B., O'Grady, K.E., Wish, E.D., & Arria, A.M. (2009). College students rarely seek help despite serious substance use problems. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 37(4), 368-378.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010, December). Healthy Youth! Coordinated School health. Retrieved from

Grella, C.E., Karno, M.P., Warda, U.S., Moore, A.A., & Niv, N.(2009) Perceptions of need and help received for substance dependence in a national probability survey. Psychiatric Services, 60(8), 1068-1074.

Ibanez, M.I., Ruiperez, M.A., Villa, H., Moya, J., & Ortet, G. (2008). Personality and alcohol use. In G.J. Boyle, G. Matthews, & DH Saklofske (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of personality theory and assessment: Vol. 1. Personality theories and models (pp. 677-697). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Kalaydjian, A., Swendsen, J., Chiu, W., Dierker, L., Degenhardt, L., Glantz, M. Kessler, R.(2009).Socio-demographic predictors of transitions across stages of alcohol use, disorders, and remission in the national comorbidity survey replication. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 50(4),. 299-306.

Macaulay, A.P., Griffin, K.W., Gronewold, E., Williams, C., & Botvin, G.J. (2005). Parenting practices and adolescent drug-related knowledge, attitudes, norms and behavior. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 49, 67-83.

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Myrick, H., & Wright, T. (2008). Clinical management of alcohol abuse and dependence. In M. Galanter & H.D. Kleber (Eds.), The American psychiatric publishing textbook of substance abuse treatment (4th ed.) (pp. 129-142). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric.

O'Donnell, L., Stueve, A., Duran, R., Myint-U, A., Agronick, G., Doval, A.S., & Wilson-Simmons, R. (2008). Parenting practices, parents' underestimation of daughters' risks, and alcohol and sexual behaviors of urban girls. Journal of Adolescent Health, 42, 496-502. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.10.008

O'Connor, R.M., & Stewart, S.H. (2010) Substance use disorders. In D. McKay, J.S. Abramowitz, & S. Taylor (Eds.), Cognitive-behavioral therapy for refractory cases: Turning failure into success 2010 (pp. 211-229). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Padilla-Walker, L.M., Nelson, L.J., Madsen, S.D., & Barry, C.M. (2008). The role of perceived parental knowledge on emerging adults' risk behaviors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 847-859. doi:10.1007/s10964-007-9268-1

Palmer, R.S., & Daniluk, J.C.(2007) The perceived role of others in facilitating or impeding healing from substance abuse. Canadian Journal of Counseling, 41(4),. 199-212.

Peterson, J. (2010). A qualitative comparison of parent and adolescent views regarding substance use. Journal of School Nursing, 26, 53-64.

Reid, S.C., Teesson, M., Sannibale, C., Matsuda, M., & Haber, P.S.(2005) The efficacy of compliance therapy in pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 66(6),… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Health Risk Behaviors Drug.  (2012, June 8).  Retrieved June 20, 2019, from

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"Health Risk Behaviors Drug."  June 8, 2012.  Accessed June 20, 2019.