Health Risk Behaviors Literature Review Chapter

Pages: 8 (2763 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 10  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Sports - Drugs

Health Risk Behaviors

Substance abuse particularly with excessive use of alcoholic beverages is considered as a form of maladaptive behavior that is exhibited by a person for a long period of time. It concerns health care officials because of numerous health risk consequences. There are significant ways that can exhibit Substance abuse behaviors depending on the individual because each individual has different reasons of taking alcoholic consumption. Excessive alcohol drinking can incur higher health risk behaviors of adolescents than a normal adult, therefore, it is one of the most concerning dilemmas particularly because it involves teenagers and young adolescents. Pritcher (2008) stated that one of the most defined solutions for people that are suffering from substance abuse is by conducting psychological counseling. He explains it to be a method that will allow individuals to express their emotions and broadening their cognitive horizons regarding their current maladaptive behaviors.

Alcoholism or addiction to alcoholic beverages refers to a compulsive disorder that can be exhibited by adults and it is now causing public concern because of involvement for minor individuals wherein they can be more prone with different undesirable consequences as predicted by ACDE (2011). There are negative health impacts that can be implicated for those who have been suffering from substance abuse because it decreases the function of the immune system as well as damaging other organs in the body. Basing from scientific discipline, alcoholism is a form of a psychological illness because it is associated with maladaptive behavior which is causing irregularities in the brain function of an individual as stated by Youth Facts (2008). The process of experiencing alcoholic abuse can be related to a person's desire to be detached with the reality such as having altered personal and professional affairs that are causing their anxiety. As the society becomes more complex, legal and health officials become more concerned because the younger generation including individuals less than 18 years of age was also involved with alcoholism as based on U.S. Dep't of Health statistics (2011).

Part II: Literature Review of the Study

As a positive affirmation review that has been claimed by medical and legal professionals, drinking age should not be lowered so that the legal and the health authorities can maintain their implementation of the law with the prohibition of drinking alcohol implied for teenage groups as indicated from Jester (2008). It has been determined from different scientific studies and researches that teenage individuals less than 18 years of age have not yet reached their physical maturity will be more prone to health risks that include physiological and psychological diseases as compared to the adult age groups (Roberts, 2011). The influences of alcoholism are one of the main causes of aggressive behavior that could result into criminal activities such as theft, robbery, physical assault, and all kinds of alcoholic induced violence. Drinking age should not be lowered so that members of the younger generation will be concentrating more on their academic affairs that will make them productive individuals in the near future. In other words, being productive meaning the future leaders of the society as indicated from Youth Facts (2008). The growth and developmental pattern of teenagers particularly for those who are below the age of 18 will not be altered by the influence of alcohol that can result into different kinds of personality disorders. Limitation of drinking alcohol can reduce the number of individuals who are suffering from psychological and psychiatric disorders because one of the main effects of alcohol is to alter the neurological responses of an individual's nervous system.

In addition to the literature review, there are associating factors that are considered to be potential risks for people suffering from intolerant behaviors related to alcohol drinking. In this review, the first will be physiological factors wherein alcohol can initially affect the integrity of the digestive system of a person due to the high amount of acidity that can damage the mucus membranes of the alimentary canal as mentioned by Rosner (2010). Metabolism will be affected if there will be chronic alcohol intake. This is true since all kinds of hormones that are processed to several organs of the body will be affected by the presence of toxic chemicals produced by the alcoholic substance. Excessive alcohol intake can affect the integrity of cardiovascular system because the acidic content that has been absorbed by the villi from the intestines can destroy all epithelial cell walls. This then leads to fragile blood vessel causing a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Alcohol contains a potent stimulant that causes brain muscles to dilate as well as producing hallucinogenic properties causing an individual to become drunk wherein their mental coherence will deteriorate as claimed by Kurtz (2008). In some cases, there are significant effects that can be affected by severe alcohol drinking. This includes nervous system degradation, in which the person's cognitive and psychomotor reflexes do not function properly due to the severe mental stimulation which can be affected by the acidic alcohol intake.

As a psychological risk behavior review, there will be significant personality disorders that can be associated by drinking behavior because of the impact that can be in affected to the nervous system. In this manner, a person's concentration to a certain action cannot be easily comprehended for the fact that the presence of alcoholic intolerant behavior deprives the intellectual capacity responsible for stimulating the abnormal behavioral response (Salazar, 2011). A person can inhibit anti-social behavioral disorders because drinking alcohol can make a person's behavior to become aggressive causing violent behavior against others, which is the cause of physical assault against one self and others. Depression can be an impending behavioral risk for the fact that the response of the brain's activity can damage the proper emotional response of a person to behave abnormally. Severe anxiety disorder can be associated with drinking alcohol as another health risk behavior since the use of alcohol can aggravate a person's apprehension due to the effect of toxicity that is being brought by the components of the alcohol. In addition, there are significant incidences of accidents that can be associated by drinking alcohol; the main reason why it is considered a health risk due to the imbalances of the cognitive and behavioral responses affected by the alcoholic substances (Thruster, 2008).

Part III: Analysis

The cause of severe alcohol drinking can be based on several components: the comprehensive integration of environment, genetic, and social factors which are responsible for influencing a person to become more involved with drinking alcohol. Impaired growth and developmental pattern is significant to an individual's psychological integrity for the reason that post traumatic stress syndrome will induce a person's personal option of choosing alcoholic drinking that helps them to escape from the reality. Social factors can be attributed for the existence of alcohol drinking because it will push more pressure to a particular person who will be forced to drink alcohol as an aggravation to their activities of the daily living. Genetic variation is a non-modifying factor that can be inherited by an offspring acquiring any characteristics taken from the parents. The offspring then can also possibly pass the characteristic to the next generation of offspring. Personality disorder that includes the passion and the desire for the taste of alcohol can also be considered as a cause for the intolerant behavior of alcohol drinking; this can be applied to all individuals suffering from anxiety. On the other hand, alcoholic drinking can cause an increase in the person's confidence to be able to release one's emotional expression to another person, objects, or events that are responsible for causing their anxiety behavior. These are reliable facts that can be helpful to support with the claim that drinking age should not be lowered by any means. This drinking age law helps to protect younger individuals from all kinds of physical, social, and security threats.

The signs and symptoms that can be associated with alcoholism is the long-term misuse of excessively drinking alcohol by having the lack of tolerance leading to an obsessive-compulsive behavior. Multi-organ failure can also be associated with the signs and symptoms of chronic and excessive drinking of alcoholic beverage and it can further escalate for the younger generation: teenagers and children. Severe cognitive and behavioral problems can surface such as depression, severe anxiety, schizophrenia, and psychomotor activities for the fact that the chemical effects of alcohol can alter all kinds of neurological processes essential for the brain's normal state function according to Thruster (2008). Criminal offensive activities will be considered as a result of altered personality disorder due to the cause of alcohol drinking. That is why people can be more aggressive and impulsive to their own self and to others.

Taking several studies into account, counseling plays an important role in dealing with individuals' suffering from substance abuse to help improve their behaviors from maladaptive pattern that includes the presence of having psychological addition to a certain substance such as compulsive drug use. Suicidal attempt is another substance abuse related… [END OF PREVIEW]

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