Health Science Term Paper

Pages: 8 (2482 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 8  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Sports - Drugs


Those running DARE program must have taken the war on drugs/zero tolerance frame into consideration and that is why they charged the law enforcement agencies with the primary responsibility of addressing illicit drug use. This made the DARE program to be diffused widely without concrete evidence on its effectiveness. Effectiveness of the DARE program should be premised on research findings and not overreliance on loss aversion frame where impending epidemic of drug use among school aged children and the youth is addressed through adopting drug use prevention programs that look good even if there is no evidence that shows that the program is effective. Drug use among school going children and the youth has been an elephant in the room despite the fact that DARE program has been in place all this years. The DARE officials have found it very difficult to accept that the program was not effective, however this is true, something that has delayed the change of the curricular. Much of this is attributed to the loss aversion strategies (Ennett S.T., et al.2013).

Officers of the DARE program have always insisted that evidence of effectiveness should not be a sufficient condition for widespread diffusion of public health innovation.

Alcoholism: a disease?

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Debates on whether alcoholism is a disease or not have been doing rounds for over 200 years and there is likelihood that such debates will still persist. Such debates went on as the disease theory of alcoholism was coined by Herbert Fingarette. This theory was premised on four propositions. First, heavy drinkers have a distinctive pattern of greater alcohol use that leads to bodily, mental, and social deterioration.

Secondly, when the condition appears, it persists involuntarily. Alcoholics crave for alcohol irresistibly and their drinking habit is uncontrollable once it has begun (Fingarette, 1990).

TOPIC: Term Paper on Health Science in Regards to Assignment

The third proposition of disease theory of alcoholism underscores the role medical expertise play in understanding and relieving the drinking problem. These medical experts can cure the disease or ameliorate its symptoms. The last proposition of the theory postulates that alcoholics and not legally or morally responsible for their drinking habits and the consequences there of. These propositions have elicited a lot of debate with some arguing that it is only the alcoholics who are capable of dealing with their problem. Some have even castigated the American Medical Association for classifying alcoholism as a disease even as there is lack of scientific evidence (Fingarette, 1990). The bottom line is alcoholism is a disease bearing in mind the physical conditions that accompany addiction.

Alcohol has had far reaching ramifications on the American society hence the labeling of Alcoholism as the nation's fourth largest public health problem in 1944. Because alcoholism has symptomatic progression of phases that morphs from psychological to physical condition, it has at times been considered a disease. When the American Medical Association acknowledged alcoholism as a disease, the stigma that was associated with alcoholism began breaking down.

The condition is not lack of strong will as certain people have chosen to call it but a disease (Fingarette, 1990). Alcoholism on many occasions cannot be cured because that heavily relies on the alcoholic's ability to control his/her addiction. Families where alcoholics come from are also affected because such families become co-dependent. This allows the alcoholics to under function. Co-dependency and alcoholism have similar characteristics. Alcoholism has long-term progressive disorder. Alcoholism has no exact illness pattern because the patterns vary in terms of psychological and social dysfunction, and medical complication. If the definition given the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (2013) is anything to go by then alcoholism is a disease. It refers to alcoholism as a chronic, progressive, and a potentially dangerous disease that is characterized by tolerance and physical dependency. Because alcoholics drink repeatedly, their professional, personal, and family life becomes compromised. Alcoholics do not have control over when they drink, when they will stop drinking, or how much they drink. They are oblivious to the consequences of their drinking habit. Alcoholics and those close to them live in constant denial of the negative effects of alcohol in their lives. This aspect of denial makes diagnosis of alcoholism more difficult. That alcoholism is a disease was manifested in the enactment of the Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment, and Rehabilitation Act of 1970. The law required alcoholics to be treated and never to be discriminated against at work. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism was subsequently formed to facilitate research, training, education, and treatment of alcoholics. Alcoholism is a disease that is never cured in totality no wonder some alcoholics are referred to as recovering alcoholics. Even when one has stopped drinking, the addictive personality remains intact. Those who have stopped drinking can easily suffer from relapse which is often very intense because the alcoholic gets back to their last stage of active drinking as indicated by National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (2013)


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Fingarette, H. (1990). Why We Should Reject the Disease Concept of Alcoholism. In R.C. Engs,

(Ed.), Controversies in the Addictions Field. (P.48). Dubuque, IA: Kendall-Hunt.

Food and Drug Administration. (1999). Consumer-Directed Broadcast Advertisements.

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Jarlais, D.C., Sloboda, Z., Friedman, S.R., Tempalski, B., McKnight, C, & Braine, N. (2006).

Diffusion of the DARE and Syringe Exchange Programs. American Journal of Public

Health, 96(8), 354-1358.

National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, (2013). Understanding Alcohol and Alcoholism. Retrieved February 27, 2012 from

The People's Pharmacy, (2013). Do Prescription Drug Ads Belong On TV? Retrieved February

27, 2012 from

Will, G.F. (2012). Should the U.S. Legalize Hard Drugs. Washington Post. Retrieved February

27, 2012… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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APA Style

Health Science.  (2012, September 11).  Retrieved September 18, 2021, from

MLA Format

"Health Science."  11 September 2012.  Web.  18 September 2021. <>.

Chicago Style

"Health Science."  September 11, 2012.  Accessed September 18, 2021.