Heart Disease Relationship Between Cardiac Research Paper

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Essential parts of the heart are capillaries, arterioles and venous, which aids the functions of the heart. The capillaries have thin layers of walls, which functions mainly in the exchange of gas, it dissolves gas, aids in getting nutrients and discharge of waste products between the blood and its surrounding tissues (Martini & Nath, 2009). The heart is located in the chest, near the anterior chest wall directly posterior to the sternum. The arteries and veins of the heart are connected to the base of the heart. The base of the heart is at the level of the third costal cartilage, posterior to the sternum and centered about 1.2 cm to the left. The heart is divided into four parts, not equal mainly because the right side dominates the heart. The four chambers of the heart are responsible for pumping the blood from the heart to the lungs and the rest of the body. The two right and left atria have highly expandable walls that are relatively thin. The chambers of the heart must be filled with blood to avoid the atrium from deflating. The auride is the expandable extension of the atrium. The boundaries between the left and right ventricles are the interventricular sulus and posterior interventricular sulus.

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The heart works continuously; it does not take a break. The cardiac muscles require a continuous supply of blood to continue its functions normally. The myocardium needs a separate flow of blood supply; it does not get its blood supply from the continuous flow of blood that goes through the four chambers of the heart. When the body is working harder than normal it demands a higher supply of oxygen, which significantly increases the blood flow to the myocardium. The coronary circulation of blood is made up of an extensive network of coronary blood vessels.

Research Paper on Heart Disease Relationship Between Cardiac Assignment

A normal heart beat originates from the cardiac muscle cells which are known as the specialized muscle cells and the contractile cells. The specialized muscle cells controls and regulates the heart beat and the contractile cells make the contractions that move the blood. The pacemaker is starting point of the heartbeat, which is generated from the SA node. An electrical impulse is generated from the pacemaker, then sent through the heart by the conducting system and distributed so that the stimulated contractile cells will push the blood at the right time, in the right direction. This function of the heart can be monitored by doctors using an electrocardiogram (EEG or EKG). A machine can be connected to the human skin which can read the electrical movements of the conducting system in the heart. This procedure can help medical professionals assess the condition of the heart.

The SA node creates impulses at regular intervals, which creates regular heartbeat, one after another for the entire life of the individual. There is a brief pause between each heartbeat. The cardiac cycle is the duration between the beginning of one heartbeat and the start of the following heartbeat. Although a heartbeat last a very short time, only about 370 msec, this is a very complex and important part of the bodily function. The cardiac cycle consists of periods of alternating cycles of contractions followed by relaxations repeated constantly. The chambers of the wall contracts and forces the blood into the nearby chambers or arterial trunk during the systole contraction. After the systole period the muscles of the heart relaxes which is known as the diastole period, which enables the chambers of the heart to refill with blood and become prepared for the next cardiac cycle. The pressure in the heart chambers rises during the systole to facilitate the contraction and movement of blood, then it falls during the diastole when the heart muscles relaxes and waits for the next cycle. Blood moves from a chamber with more pressure to a chamber with less pressure. The pressure within the individual chambers pushes the blood out of the chamber into another adjacent chamber with less pressure. Interconnections between arteries are called arterial anastomoses. Because the arteries are interconnected in this way, the blood supply to the cardiac muscle remains relatively constant despite pressure fluctuations in the left and right coronary arteries as the heart beats. This is the same principle that governs the functionality of blood between atria and ventricles, ventricles and arterial trunks and between the atria and major veins.

The coronary arteries are located at the aortic sinuses, which is the bottom of each aorta. The blood pressure in the coronary arteries is at its highest peak during the system circuit. With each contraction of the ventricles blood rushes into the aorta. The rush of blood into the aorta creates elevated pressures in the aorta, which causes the walls of the aorta to stretch to accommodate the influx of blood. When the ventricles relaxes during the cardiac cycle, the flow of blood into the aorta ceases which causes a decline in pressure and the aorta wall recoils which is called the elastic rebound. During the elastic rebound blood is pushed in both directions, forward into the systemic circuit and backward through the aortic sinuses which go into the coronary arteries. This process of increase of blood pressure and elastic rebound keeps the steady flow of blood to the cardiac muscle tissues, ensuring the cardiac muscles have the necessary blood supply to continue its normal functions. Myocardial blood flow is different, it consists of peaks during the period where the heart muscles are relaxed and then it ceases when the heart muscles contracts.

Preventing Heart Attacks

There are many ways to protect ourselves from going into cardiac arrest. Understanding the human body and how the cardio vascular system functions will help to prevent coronary cardiac disease. Coronary Artery Disease is the most frequent cause of heart attack in the United States. As individuals we should become familiarize with the anatomical, functional and pathological aspects of coronary cardiac disease. Individuals with a pre-existing cardiac disease or those that are at risk for cardiac disease should become educated with the subject to prevent cardiac arrest. There is a relationship between growth from childhood to adulthood and cardiovascular risk factors. Some of the factors influencing cardiovascular risks are; blood pressure, plasma glucose, insulin and apoliprotein B, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes (Goodwin & Sharp, 1992). Individuals with any one of these risk factors should be concerned, individuals with more than one of these risk factors are more at risk for heart disease.

Understanding your pre-disposition or risk for heart disease is important. Over the last decade cardiovascular mortality has decreased in the United States because of improvement of diagnosis and prognosis of this disease (Wenger, Shaw & Vaccarino, 2008). The reduction of coronary risks is essential for reducing the risk of heart attack. Individuals with a family history of heart disease are at risk for getting coronary heart disease and cardiac arrest. Individuals who are elderly over the age of 65 and have hypertension have a high risk of developing coronary artery disease (Antonini-Canterin et. al., 2009).

A change in lifestyle for those at risk for heart disease will help prevent or delay heart disease and heart attacks. Some basic recommendations such as low fat, low cholesterol, diet with a regular exercise program is necessary for preventing and delaying heart disease. Choosing a healthy diet includes a large proportion of vegetables including a significant amount of green vegetables is essential (Jensen & Smith, 2010). Individuals that have been diagnosed with heart disease can be prescribed medication to help control the disease and prevent heart attacks. It is also important for people at risk for heart disease to quit smoking since smoking acerbates heart attack. Individuals should consult with the appropriate health professionals such as their doctor and a nutritionist to create a nutrition plan that reduce the risk of heart disease (French, 2010).

Relationship between Cardiac Arrest and Coronary Artery Disease

Cardiac arrest must be treated within minutes or it will result in death. Cardiac arrest is a condition where the heart suddenly stops beating, which stops the flow of blood to the brain and other organs. Cardiac arrest is often mistaken for a heart attack, however it is very different. It is very difficult to obtain testing that would diagnose cardiac arrest, since it must be treated promptly to avoid death. Doctors will usually eliminate other possibilities of symptoms and treat the patient for cardiac arrest if suspected. Cardiac arrest requires an immediate defibrillator, which will help to restore normal rhythm to the heart (National Heart, Lung AND blood Institute, 2010). Coronary heart disease can be diagnosed using coronary computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These techniques can be used to diagnosed coronary artery disease during routine physicals if heart disease is suspected (Escolar et. al., 2006). Patients who are diagnosed with coronary artery disease can be treated and given a nutrition plan to help control this disease.


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