Research Paper: Herzberg and Blanchards' Theory Leadership

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[. . .] Blanchard and Hersey's basic understanding is that the leader has to adjust his leadership styles (S1-S4) to go along the development stages (D1-D4). They believe that the leader has to show that flexibility towards the worker because the leader's attitudes and behavior have a high influence on the follower's work as well. By understanding the followers in an appropriate way and adjusting their leadership style accordingly, they can get the best out of the worker, strengthen the relationships and alongside, help raise the development level of the follower. The worker may feel more comfortable and adapt to the environment which will help him learn quickly and perform the job efficiently which will end up being a favorable factor for all.

Steps in the Situational Leadership Strategy:

1. Make an outline of each employee's job and tasks that are to be performed.

2. Carry out an assessment of the employee's status on the job and what level he stands at. (D1-D4)

3. Analyze and judge what kind of leadership style needs to be applied to the worker. (S1-S4)

4. Discuss the tasks and situation with the worker.

5. Device a joint strategy that goes with the interest of the leader and the follower.

6. Review the tasks when done and make any corrections needed.

Strengths of the Situational Leadership Strategy:

It is easy to understand and interpret.

It can be applied conveniently and is quite successful.

Drawbacks of the Situational Leadership Strategy:

This strategy fails to highlight the difference between leadership and management. What this theory refers to as the leadership style is actually the way in which management is carried out.

They misjudge the main goal of leadership to be about decision making, although the main focus of leadership is to motivate and inspire people to do better and bring changes in their work that would make them better.

The first step in the process of inspiring the workers to change is the need to realize that a change is needed. This however, does not diminish the leader's ability and power of decision making.

This strategy focuses mainly on how the person in control is to react and carry out things.

The basic point of argument that the leader and followers react differently in different situations is just a general fact of life and occurs at every level and in every aspect. To mold and adjust according to circumstances is in the nature of humans (Hersey, 1984).

Assumptions of Situational Leadership Conditions:

Leaders need to have a style that should be mature and is easy for the follower to adopt too, depending on how quickly the follower catches on and is willing to fulfill the tasks successfully.

The four different kinds of leadership match the follower's ability to catch up on the task and be willing to have a competence and motivation.

The different styles are made in accordance with the development levels that the followers show. These can be adjusted according to the high / low willingness as well as the kind of relationship that is maintained between the follower and the leader.

The theory states and focuses on the leader's power of making decisions and exercising control.

Fredrick Herzberg's Theory of Human Motivation:

Fredrick Herzberg's motivation theory is also referred to as the Two Factor Theory. The main focus of this theory is the dual factors of Hygiene and maintenance of the motivation level. The theory bases its assumptions on the information gathered by Herzberg during his research conducted in USA in 1959 by conducting interviews of more than 200 engineers and accountants and their attitudes towards work. The research reflects on the way people feel about the factors of motivation they get at their place of work. They analyzed that their work was basically dependant on two sets of factors, being hygiene or maintenance factors that motivate a person to perform better (Akrani, 2010).

Hygiene Factors of the Two Factor Theory:

Fredrick Herzberg states that the Hygiene Factors have quite a small contribution to the level of satisfaction that a person achieves from a job. Fredrick referred to these as the "dissatisfiers" because their absence caused a bit of dissatisfaction but their presence was not a motivating factor as such, but it prevented the person from being dissatisfied. The hygiene factors when provided created a favorable and comfortable environment for the workers to do their job in. The hygiene factors added to the favorable conditions and eliminated any discomfort. However, they did not necessarily prove to be motivators if they were actually provided. The hygiene factors can be identified as:

Hygiene / Maintenance Factors:

1. Company's contracts, policies and the way it is administered,

2. The supervision of tasks and work,

3. The working conditions provided to employees,

4. The relationships that are maintained between colleagues, and the higher level management,

5. Salary and fringe benefits,

6. Level of Job Security provided,

7. Status and Control,

8. Personal Life.

Motivating Factors of the Two Factor Theory:

Motivating factors are the driving force behind job satisfaction and content. These leave a positive impact and effect on the employee's performance. These are directly related to the work being done by the worker. Appropriate and adequate supply of these factors called the "satisfiers" make the employee happy and content with the job and they actually serve as the basic needs of the man that he has to fulfill in order to grow, socially and psychologically (Akrani, 2010). These are the essentials of a job that the person usually strives for and these provide satisfaction to them. There are five main Motivators that have been outlined by Herzberg which are:

1. Achievements,

2. Recognition for the work and accomplishment,

3. Wide range of responsibilities and certain control,

4. Scope for growth and development such as job enrichment,

5. Challenging work that motivates the person to work hard and learn something.

These motivating factors satisfy the worker and provide a source of satisfaction so that the interest in the work develops further and the dedication leads to greater efficiency. The employees will generally not have an efficient performance until these motivating factors are provided to them by the leader or employer.

According to Herzberg, the two sets of factors are not interlinked in any way. They exist independent of each other. It is easy to notice that the hygiene factors when provided do not as such act as motivators, instead all they do is help prevent a feeling of dissatisfaction. The hygiene factors help to make an employee's performance better and efficient. On the other hand, the motivating factors enable a person to grow and work hard to achieve something. To sum it up, it is reasonable to argue that the hygiene factors only add to the comfort and the person's willingness whereas the motivators actually affect the performance and motivation (Akrani, 2010).

Limitations of the Two Factor Theory:

Like any other theory, Herzberg's assumptions and evaluations also have limitations. They are related to the way research methodology is put to use for empirical validation and making assumptions in the theory. Despite these criticisms, Herzberg's theory has served as a major contribution for the improvement of a manager's interpretations of the human attitudes and behavior. The theory is relatively easy to understand and interpret and helps in increasing the motivation levels of employees.

Contrast between the two theories:

As the background to Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership theory state how a leader is to react differently towards different kinds of employees and is supposed to possess the qualities that are essential to effectively manage and control the workforce. Their main aim focus was that of the attitudes of the leader and the development of the workforce and how the followers respond to the leader's attitudes. It is essential to identify the sole functions and responsibilities that are associated with a leader. A leader has to be a support for the followers, guide them, provide for their demands, take care of the working environment and lastly to motivate them. This factor of motivation is the central topic of Herzberg's two factor theory. Herzberg devised the two broad categories of motivators and hygiene factors which were identified as the elements that motivated a worker to perform the job more efficiently and with more dedication. Herzberg says that there are some basic needs of a worker that he aims to fulfill at his workplace (Schermerhorn, 1997). The hygiene factors are those elements that prevent the worker from being dissatisfied and keep the person content with the job. On the other hand, the motivators are the factors that lead a worker to perform their job better and increase efficiency levels. Both the theories are related to one another because both of them are targeted towards the workplace and how to make it better for the worker and increase productivity. The motivation that is supposed to be provided to the worker is also part of the leader's responsibilities and therefore Herzberg's theory lies under… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Herzberg and Blanchards' Theory Leadership.  (2011, July 6).  Retrieved May 20, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/herzberg-blanchards-theory-leadership/1954138

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"Herzberg and Blanchards' Theory Leadership."  Essaytown.com.  July 6, 2011.  Accessed May 20, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/herzberg-blanchards-theory-leadership/1954138.