Higher ED Faculty Adoption of Technology in the Classroom Term Paper

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Higher Ed Faculty Adoption Of Technology in the Classroom

The Principal Proposition

In 1989, 38 CEOs came together and founded the 'Cable Alliance for Education', which as a non-profit foundation created to provide support to excellence in education. This consortium was an alliance among cable operators and networks that had as their aim "serving teachers and students...across the country, and based on the premise that powerful technology and rich content can make learning happen." (Marshall, 2002) the educational philosophy that served as a guide was that each student and teacher has a right to five elements that are essential to a good education in the 21st century. Those five are stated to be as follows:

Visionary and sensible use of technology to extend learning;

Engagement with deep, rich content;

Membership in a meaningful community of learners;

Excellent teaching; and Support of parents and other adults. (Marshall, 2002)Download full Download Microsoft Word File
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TOPIC: Term Paper on Higher ED Faculty Adoption of Technology in the Classroom Assignment

The work of Marshall (2002) presents highlights in the evolution of educational technology which began with the first use of visual illustration for learning "long before the 20th century" introduced into the schools in the form of audiovisual media in the 1900s. (Reiser, 1987; as cited in Marshall, 2002) it was the year of 1910 when the "first catalog of instructional films appeared..." (Reiser, 1987; as cited in Marshall, 2002) During World War II educational technology advanced rapidly and there were 457 sound-motion pictures, 457 instructor manuals and 432 silent filmstrips for training of officers serving in the U.S. armed services. Olsen and Bass (1982) relate the $1 billion expenditure of the U.S. government for development and distribution of films to include the purchase of 55,000 film projectors to use in implementation of the instructional technology. (Marshall, 2002; paraphrased) During the 1950s, the television became a tool for learning with two factors influencing the increase in interest in television: (1) the birth of educational television stations; and (2) Significant funding for educational television provided by the Ford Foundation. (Marshall, 2002) Interest in the television as a tool for instruction includes "teacher resistance to television in the classroom, the expense of television systems, and the inability of television alone to meet the various conditions for students learning..." (Gordon; 1970; Tyler, 1975; as cited in Marshall, 2002)

One example of technology designed for educational assistance is that of Intel, a leader in global technology with a commitment to "enhancing lives by accelerating access to uncompromised technology for everyone, anywhere in the world." (Empowering 21st Century Teaching and Learning, 2006) Intel states that it is to this end that: "Intel's involvement in education is longstanding and profound." (Empowering 21st Century Teaching and Learning, 2006) Intel was founded in 1968 and since that time states investments of more than USD 1 billion aimed toward improvement in teaching and learning. Intel's 'Education Initiative' states specifically that the commitment is one that is sustained and for the preparation of "all students with the skills required to thrive in the knowledge economy. Through collaboration with educators and governments in more than 50 countries, Intel works to improve teaching and learning through the effective use of technology..." (Empowering 21st Century Teaching and Learning, 2006) Intel offers a program that trains teachers in integrating technological tools and resources into their lessons and includes "both face-to-face and online instruction, designed to enable teachers to introduce, expand, and support project-based learning techniques in the classroom." (Empowering 21st Century Teaching and Learning, 2006) Intel has trained more than 3.5 million teachers in over 40 countries. In addition to professional development for educators, Intel has a community education program for "underserved youths ages 8-16 to learn technology, critical thinking and collaboration skills using an engaging project-based curriculum in an after-school, community centered setting." (Empowering 21st Century Teaching and Learning, 2006) Intel focuses on "emerging markets where young people have limited access to technology..." And has assisted over 350,000 learners in nine countries in gaining access and instruction needed for acquisition of "...today's critical skills." (Empowering 21st Century Teaching and Learning, 2006)

Intel knows that technology is needed in order for countries to compete and "that is why Intel supports programs to promote math and science in elementary, secondary and higher education." (Empowering 21st Century Teaching and Learning, 2006) Intel states that it brings "cutting edge technology expertise to university campuses encourages students to pursue technical degrees and helps move technology into local economies." (Empowering 21st Century Teaching and Learning, 2006) the Regional Educational Laboratory at AEL Inc. states in relation to educational technology that: "...Since 1995, the United States has made a considerable investment in educational technology and its use in the classroom; estimates of combined federal and other funding total more than a billion dollars. Yet recent improvements in school technology will be wasted if teachers and school leaders are not prepared to use new tools effectively." (2007) Stated as five goals that have been identified by AEL for promotion of effective use of educational technology are the following five goals:

Goal 1: "Explore innovative ways that current and emerging technologies can be used to address specific education problems, particularly as they relate to disadvantaged and underserved populations. AEL, Inc. recently established the Institute for the Advancement of Emerging Technologies in Education (IAETE) to integrate the organization's efforts." (NCREL, 2007)

Goal 2: "Design and develop high-quality research-based products and services to address the documented needs of low-performing learning communities. Recent products include Principal Connections, an interactive CD-ROM and companion Web site that help school principals build technology leadership skills; and Distance Based and Distributed Learning: A Decision Tool for Education Leaders" (NCREL, 2007)

Goal 3: "Maintain a collection of the most relevant research related to educational technology and its use. To guide this work, a panel of distinguished advisors with diverse expertise will be convened annually..." (NCREL, 2007)

Goal 4: "Collect and disseminate promising practices and exemplary strategies from throughout the United States and beyond. As demonstrated in Patterns of Promise, AEL products are designed to help schools understand the discrete elements necessary for replication in other settings." (NCREL, 2007)

Goal 5: Facilitate communication and resource sharing throughout the regional educational laboratory network. AEL is developing an electronic environment that will support the collection, organization, and dissemination of research, artifacts, media objects, and procedural knowledge. (NCREL, 2007)

The work of Hamza entitled: "Technology and Education between Chaos and Order" states that: "While still dawning, the information explosion influenced the rise of two extremes. To one extreme, some traditional, bureaucratic institutions seem to avoid technological advance, doubting its potential to assist in improving teaching and learning outcomes. These institutions tend to dispute change and embrace obsolete beliefs, cultural constraints, and boundaries. To the other extreme many institutions confidently market themselves as "electronic universities," "Internet schools," "virtual universities," and other labels that indicate their position in the race of information technology." (Hamza, nd) Hazma states that currently: "Rigid, inherited beliefs, societal traditions, and economic-centered objectives are the primary fortress of an aged, declining American educational system." (nd)

The work of Ozdemir, Altinkemer, and Barron entitled: "Adoption of Technology-Mediated Distance Education among Higher-Education Institutions" (2004) states that: "Recent development in Information Technology (it) and the commercialization of the Internet have generated new opportunities for the delivery of education and allowed many higher-education institutions to bring their resources closer to a broad base of potential users. Graduate business degrees are especially in high demand; about 200 accredited schools offered Master of Business Administration (MBA) degrees over the Internet in 2002 according to the educational research firm Eduventures, Inc." The fact is however, that "Despite the importance of the higher education sector in the U.S. economy, the strategic use of technology-mediated distance education (TMDE) has received limited research attention at best." (Ozdemir, Altinkemer, and Barron, 2004) TMDE is used by these authors as a reference to both synchronous and asynchronous instruction.

II. The Interactive Proposition

The work of Basson (1999) entitled: "Slow Adoption of Technology" reports that the Higher Education Group at Microsoft, in order to gain a better understanding of both the needs and concerns: "...of higher education as they relate to technology...held a meeting of its Scholars Board in Redmond." (1999) the question posed by the group is stated to be the question of: "What are the major factors, which inhibit the accelerated adoption of technology in higher education?" (Basson, 1999) This group identified the major issues that are in existence on the majority of campuses "with regards to factors inhibiting the use of technology in teaching and learning..." (Basson, 1999) the first issue identified was that: "Faculty were not taught/mentored in the use of technology for teaching." (Basson, 1999) it appears that the problem is a common mistake "to confuse technology with media." (Basson, 1999) Instructional technology is defined by the Microsoft work group and reported in the study of Basson (1999) to be:

the systemic and systematic application of strategies and techniques derived from behavior and physical sciences concepts and other knowledge to the solution of instructional problems (Gentry, 1991)." (Basson, 1999) the media born of… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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