Historical Events in 1877 Term Paper

Pages: 6 (2386 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 0  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Native Americans  ·  Buy This Paper

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[. . .] At that time, Dull Knife was nearing 70 years old and so sickly that some did not recognize him. Throughout the winter and spring, he had to be hidden among the Sioux because the soldiers continued to look for him.

In the meantime, Little Wolf and the other half of the tribe found their way to the Lost Chokecherry Valley in the Nebraska sandhills and camped there until the worst of winter had passed. Making their way to the head of the Powder River, they had returned to their old homeland.

At the end of March, 1879, having made their way through 1,000 miles of hostile territory, they got home, only to be met by soldiers who asked them to surrender. They did, but were granted permission to stay, which was what only they had wanted all along.

Later that year, Dull Knife was given permission to join his friend, Little Wolf, and the surviving Cheyenne, in Montana where he died in 1883.

Finally, after all the pain, hunger, disease, and loss of life, the government made it official. In 1904, they set aside a tract of land in Montana as a permanent home for the Northern Cheyenne.

United States Policy Toward Pine Ridge

The United States Housing Act of 1937, one of many post-Depression New Deal programs established by Franklin Delano Roosevelt, promised to provide "safe and sanitary" dwellings for America's poor. The 1937 Housing Act authorized local governments to organize public housing agencies and provided loan funds to these agencies for low-income housing projects. It also permitted the federal government to guarantee these loans and to make yearly payments. In 1949, Congress passed another bill that updated the 1937 Housing Act and addressed the post-World War II housing shortage. The bill renewed the federal commitment to provide safe and sanitary homes to the poor and expanded it to include a "decent home and suitable living environment for all American families."

Indian tribes, however, were ignored in this entire process. This was mostly due to the federal government's termination policy toward Indian tribes in the 40's and 50's, which tried to dissolve the government-to-government relationship with tribes and assimilate Indian people into mainstream America. In addition, tribes lacked the experience and influence in constitutional government and policies to assert their housing rights under existing federal and state law and lacked the financial capability to finance their own housing programs.

Shamefully, a segment of Americans was ignored under the "if you cannot see them, they aren't there" unofficial policy, and Indians continued to suffer as a nation of people supposedly protected under the Constitution of the United States.

Red Cloud

In 1866, Red Cloud began the orchestration of the most successful war against the United States ever fought by an Indian nation. Red Cloud's strategies were so successful that by 1868 the United States government had agreed to the Fort Laramie Treaty. The treaty's remarkable provisions mandated that the United States abandon its forts along the Bozeman Trail and guarantee the Lakota their possession of what is now the Western half of South Dakota, including the Black Hills, along with much of Montana and Wyoming.

The peace, of course, did not last. Custer's 1874 Black Hills expedition again brought war to the northern Plains, a war that would mean the end of independent Indian nations. For reasons that are not entirely clear, Red Cloud did not join Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull, and other war leaders in the Lakota War of 1876-77.

However, after the military defeat of the Lakota nation, Red Cloud continued to fight for the needs and autonomy of his people, even if in less obvious or dramatic ways than waging war. Throughout the 1880's Red Cloud struggled with Pine Ridge Indian Agent Valentine McGillycuddy over the distribution of government food and supplies and the control of the Indian police force. Eventually successful in securing McGillycuddy's dismissal, Red Cloud cultivated contacts with sympathetic Eastern reformers, especially Thomas A. Bland, and was not above pretending - for political effect and protecting his people - to be more acculturated to white ways than he actually was.

Spotted Tail

Spotted Tail was assassinated by Crow Dog for rumors of "pocketing proceeds from a sale of tribal lands" and "selling Lakota land to the railroads, building himself an enormous white-styled mansion with the proceeds."

History bears a more accurate picture of the end of Spotted Tail's life, however. When Pine Ridge was established, it was one of the first times that an Indian agency was not named for heroic chiefs. The agent at Rosebud, who had just been engaged in a contest with Spotted Tail, wrote of him these words: "Spotted Tail was a true friend to the whites. His influence was always on the side of law and order, and to him is greatly due the peace which now exists."

Family Members

The families of the chiefs and tribes of the Sioux were exposed to torture, starvation, imprisonment, hardships and loss in fighting for the very freedoms that Americans should be able to expect, simply by way of being Americans.

The changes, loss, heroism, and renewal of the support systems for… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Historical Events in 1877.  (2003, April 27).  Retrieved February 18, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/historical-events-1877/3723333

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" Historical Events in 1877."  27 April 2003.  Web.  18 February 2019. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/historical-events-1877/3723333>.

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" Historical Events in 1877."  Essaytown.com.  April 27, 2003.  Accessed February 18, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/historical-events-1877/3723333.