History of the Areas of Expertise Essay

Pages: 15 (4350 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 0  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Doctorate  ·  Topic: Drama - World

History Of the Areas of Expertise and Their

Application To Project Activities

History with its flickering lamp stumbles along the trail of the past, trying to reconstruct its scenes, to revive its echoes, and kindle with pale gleams the passion of former days.

Winston Churchill

The historical review conducted in chapter 2 can now be presented and analysed. This chapter will consider and summarise the data given there. The data will be investigated by obtaining significant results concerning development within the historical periods addressed by this research study. The same guiding categories will be utilised to arrange the analysis, namely:

Cultural environment

Scientific environment

Economic environment

General management

Architectural principles

Construction technology

The Master builder tradition

Analysis of project activities

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In practice, these items are closely interwoven and interact to form the field of project management as a whole; they are separated in this work only for ease of presentation and analysis. The analytical presentation in this chapter will be used to develop the interpretive synthesis of the history of modern project management in the next chapter. Through a careful study of events and practices related to these research categories, the discussion will trace circumstances at different historical periods that affected the development of the areas of expertise and their application to project activities. As a continuation of the previous chapters, the goals are to recapitulate the historical data and extend the clarity and significance of that information. By understanding the historical development of the areas of expertise and their application to project activities in this way, the history of the modern project management will be detailed and unfolded.

Essay on History of the Areas of Expertise and Assignment

Science and technology have advanced over the centuries, as have cultural environments, economic developments, and management skills. It is these types of changes that this research attempts to discuss and synthesise using historical examples of building projects. The goal of this work is to examine how historical circumstances have influenced architectural principles, construction technology, and professional tradition down through the various historical periods of modern Western history. Undoubtedly, building construction is a dynamic field for historical research. Much can be learned about social organisation, engineering, and technology, as well as aesthetics, through investigating the history of important buildings. Therefore, the chapter will end with an analytical summary of the contribution of these buildings and will look forward to the next chapter's synthesis of the findings.

3.1 Cultural Environment

Quality is the result of a carefully constructed cultural environment.

It has to be the fabric of the organisation, not part of the fabric.

-- Philip B. Crosby

3.1.0. Introduction

Project activities are performed within a particular historical, political, and social context. The study of the cultural environment of a historical period in modern Western history is essentially the study of the past, usually from written sources. In other words, it is the study of recorded cultural history. Archaeology, reinforced by written records, provides us with extremely important indications of the varied cultures and their particular cultural practices. However, when we speak of cultural history, we refer to something more complex, intricate, and interrelated than just recorded facts and data.

What is understood by culture and, more specifically, cultural history? The cultural history of a people records the past in terms of the broad interaction of the various aspects of that society. These can include how historical, political, and social milieu and other variables intersecting to create the unique mix of perception. Cultural history, therefore, refers to the fabric of that particular society. In essence, the study of cultural history refers to the unique and distinctive identity and quality that the civilisation or group under discussion has built up. This can also include the study of aspects such as rituals, belief systems, as well as class and social stratification that constitute the nature of that society. Cultural historians have emphasised that every society or civilisation has its own shape, purpose, and meaning. Identity is expressed in activities, arts, and institutions of learning.

However, while it is important to consider each culture in relation to its own particular identity and context, it is equally important to consider the effects of that culture on other cultures. When we study the culture of each historical period, we tend to look at each different society as if it were essentially autonomous: there was the Renaissance, then the Scientific Revolution, then the Industrial Revolution, and so forth. However, while there are of course core practices, habits, and beliefs that distinguish each society, there are many key connections with other cultures as well. Societies share and borrow from each other all the time; indeed, one might argue that the level of "borrowing" from one culture to the next is at the level of grand larceny.

When one thinks about it, there is every reason for societies to borrow from each other in the same way that one generation learns from its predecessor and passes on what it has learned. Some of what different societies passed along to each other took the form of technological advancements -- for example, Baroque builders took the technology of Renaissance builders and developed it into a uniquely Baroque style; Machine Age builders took the technology of the Industrial Revolution and developed it into a uniquely the Machine Age style

The following section will deal with various prominent modern cultures. It will examine them in terms of their own unique identities and their intersections with other cultures and cultural developments.

3.1.1 History of the Cultural Environment

Early Modern Era

The Renaissance Period lasted from the mid of the 15th century until the early part of the 17th century. It is focused on having a political and intellectual rebirth. Some of the most important characteristics during this period include reforms in learning and education, revision of the perspectives of Christianity, and having new insights on subjects which were traditional by nature (Brooks). In the field of arts, realism has emerged. In the field of philosophy, there has also been a more realistic portrayal of life, compared to the previous portrayals which were mostly idealistic.

This period has continued the traditions of the Romans and the Greek, especially with regards to medieval rediscovery. Different advanced technologies have been introduced and have led into a higher level of progress and urbanization. In the field of art, the trend is towards realism. In the field of governance, feudalism has been replaced by the rise of capitalism. Europe was able to gain more power all over the globe through the territories which were colonized. The Renaissance has demonstrated and evolution and movement towards the same direction from the earlier medieval period (Starn 122-4). The classical Roman life has played a significant role during this period. The architects have also used antiquate principles in structural engineering during this period. The book entitled De Architectura was able to document some of the fundamentals and principles that have guide the tradition of master builders during this period. This book was also a demonstration of the renewed interest in this period with regards to the dissemination of knowledge and improvement in the field of education.

Vespucci was one of the people who contributed during this period, specifically with his international voyages that occurred from 1490 to 1500 (O'Gorman 106), which has led into the expansion of international trade. Although there were some who claim that the traditions during this period were rooted from the earlier periods, many people from the field of arts were grounded on the belief that the Renaissance period is extremely different, and it is not similar to any of the periods that existed before such (Woods and Elmer). There were several developments that lead into modernity, and one of the famous examples of such would be Leonardo Da Vinci (Osbrone). With the many contributions of the Renaissance, some of the most prominent would be multi-disciplinary focus and artistic excellence. The artists who have been popular during this period became very famous and they were among the ones who were most studied up to the present time. The artists were very much productive during this period.

During the Scientific Revolution, which has been apparent from the early part of the 17th century to the mid-part of the 18th century, logical reasoning became prominent. Aside from scientific improvement and newness, this period has coincided with Baroque. Baroque refers to a style of art and architecture that became popular during the early part of the period and has been recognized as the response of the Catholic to the simplicity that has been introduced by the Protestants. This has led into the presence of a style that is emotionally accessible, and that is highly demonstrative of the power and wealth of Catholicism.

According to many people, one of the key characteristics of the Scientific Period is that it has taken an empirical and logical approach to analysis. It has popularized the use of treatise and book, definition of what can be observed, and having the truth as the outcome. Because the interpretation makes use… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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