Term Paper: History of Behaviorism and Psychoanalysis

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[. . .] He died of a heart attack in jail.

Another professional in the field of mental health psychoanylism was Jacques Lacan. He too built on what Sigmund Freud started and began to further develop the field of analysis (Jacques Lacan (http://www.colorado.edu/English/ENGL2012Klages/lacan.html).

In his discussion of the absolute division between the unconscious and the consciousness (or between id and ego), Freud introduces the idea of the human self, or subject, as radically split, divided between these two realms of conscious and unconscious (Jacques Lacan (http://www.colorado.edu/English/ENGL2012Klages/lacan.html).On the one hand, our usual (Western humanist) ideas of self or personhood are defined by operations of consciousness, including rationality, free will, and self-reflection. For Freud and for psychoanalysis in general, however, actions, thought, belief, and the concepts of "self" are all determined or shaped by the unconscious, and its drives and desires.Jacques Lacan is a French psychoanalyst (Jacques Lacan (http://www.colorado.edu/English/ENGL2012Klages/lacan.html).He was originally trained as a psychiatrist, and in the 1930s and 40s worked with psychotic patients; he began in the 1950s to develop his own version of psychoanalysis, based on the ideas articulated in structuralist linguistics and anthropology (Jacques Lacan (http://www.colorado.edu/English/ENGL2012Klages/lacan.html)."

It was this professional who assisted in the development of humanism which is founded in the belief that there is free will and self-determination. Freud's beliefs flew in the face of the theory of humanism because Freud believed that everything one does stems from the unconscious.

But Freud hoped that, by bringing the contents of the unconscious into consciousness, he could minimize repression and neurosis (Jacques Lacan (http://www.colorado.edu/English/ENGL2012Klages/lacan.html) -- hemakes a famous declaration about the relation between the unconscious and conscious, saying that "Wo Es war, soll Ich werden": Where It was, shall I be." In other words, the "it," or "id" (unconscious) will be replaced by the "I," by consciousness and self-identity. Freud's goal was to strengthen the ego, the "I" self, the conscious/rational identity, so it would be more powerful than the unconscious. For Lacan, this project is impossible. The ego can never take the place of the unconscious, or empty it out, or control it, because, for Lacan, the ego or "I" self is only an illusion, a product of the unconscious itself. In Lacanian (Jacques Lacan (http://www.colorado.edu/English/ENGL2012Klages/lacan.html) psychoanalysis, the unconscious is the ground of all being."

Freud proposed three stages of perversity in infants called the oral the anal and the phallic. Lacan also discussed and developed something that is inseparable from its mother. "In fact, the baby (for both Freud and Lacan) is a kind of blob, with no sense of self or individuated identity, and no sense even of its body as a coherent unified whole. This baby-blob is driven by NEED (Jacques Lacan (http://www.colorado.edu/English/ENGL2012Klages/lacan.html);it needs food, it needs comfort/safety, it needs to be changed, etc. These needs are satisfiable, and can be satisfied by an object. When the baby needs food, it gets a breast (or a bottle); when it needs safety, it gets hugged. The baby, in this state of NEED, doesn't recognize any distinction between itself and the objects that meet its needs; it doesn't recognize that an object (like a breast) is part of another whole person (because it doesn't have any concept yet of "whole person")(Jacques Lacan (http://www.colorado.edu/English/ENGL2012Klages/lacan.html).There's no distinction between it and anyone or anything else; there are only needs and things that satisfy those needs. This is the state of "nature," which has to be broken up in order for culture to be formed. This is true in both Freud's psychoanalysis and in Lacan's: the infant must separate from its mother, form a separate identity, in order to enter into civilization. That separation entails some kind of LOSS; when the child knows the difference between itself and its mother, and starts to become an individuated being, it loses that primal sense of unity (and safety/security) that it originally had. This is the element of the tragic built into psychoanalytic theory (whether Freudian or Lacanian): to become a civilized "adult" always entails the profound loss of an original unity, a non-differentiation, a merging with others (particularly the mother) (Jacques Lacan (http://www.colorado.edu/English/ENGL2012Klages/lacan.html)."

When a baby does not make this separation successfully there are later underlying problems that must be worked through if the person is going to be whole again according t the founders of the field. This is the premise by which most psychoanalysis is based and built on. In addition of certain needs are not met in childhood there comes a stunting or a dysfunction that can cause life problems. The psychoanalysis approach provides a guided long period of sessions in which the client and the therapist explore the life of the client and find where the breakdown occurred. Working through the life beginning in infancy is what the field is based in.


The two theories were developed and worked side by side for years until the 1960's and 1970's when the two merged. The merge provided the ability to use both approaches for the same patient. The talk therapy combined with the behaviorism approach works to allow changes in patterns while understanding the past and origin of emotional pain helps to avoid it in the future.

The two approaches work together today to provide whole therapeutic techniques. The use of behaviorism is often combined with psychoanalysis but there are still therapist professionals who stick by one or the other. They have common anilities at this point because they have merged for several decades and today they overlap in their beliefs and approaches, though psychoanalysis is usually a much longer process than behavior therapy. http://www.biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de/genetics/behavior/learning/behaviorism.html

Operant Conditioning and Behaviorism - an historical outline

Psychoanalysis, History of http://cognet.mit.edu/MITECS/Entry/hopkins



Behavioral medicine

Jacques Lacan http://www.colorado.edu/English/ENGL2012Klages/lacan.html

Agras, W.S. (1982). Behavioral Medicine in the 1980s: Nonrandom Connections. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50 (6), 797-803.

Blanchard, E.B. (1982). Behavioral Medicine: Past, Present, and Future. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50 (6), 795-796.

Wilhelm Reich and Orgone Energy

http://search.dogpile.com/texis/search?q=%22Wilhelm+Reich%22&cat=web&top=1 behaviorism http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0497_DeMar_-_Behaviorism.html [END OF PREVIEW]

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