Term Paper: History of Multicultural Counseling Psychology

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History Of Multicultural Psychology

History of Multicultural Counseling Psychology

The issue of culture has been in existence for centuries now. The term 'multiculturalism' is used to refer to a state of bother ethnic and cultural diversity (Adams & Welsch, 2009). Such culturalism is studied within the wider subject of human demographics and space. In some different societies, it becomes quite clear that there are various policies and ideas that have been instituted to define cultural identities. This concept has been used to advocate a society whereby there are distinct cultures re energized without having any cultural domination for a long time. In the modern world, multiculturalism is a psychological field focusing on the cultural ideas and ideas existing in a society (Ossorio, 2010). It will involve different aspects including education, home, what needs to be normal/abnormal and other societal relationships. Using various sources and articles, this study will offer a detailed description of history of multicultural psychology (American Psychological Association 2012).

Detailed History of Multicultural Psychology

While different theories and ideas have been presented to explain the possible history of different groups and societies, it has been possible to study such relations by focusing on the history of different ethnic groups from the past centuries (Adams & Welsch, 2009). For instance, a detailed historical study and analysis of different ethnic groups in Asia and the United States can provide learners and individuals with some of the best psychological understanding and knowledge of the society (Cauce, 2011). Some of these developments and concepts would be carefully understood by analyzing the historical developments and ideas arising from different scholars and psychologists. However, while some studies have been offered to develop this area of psychology, the important thing to understand is that the multicultural ideas emerged primarily from the inclusion of different individuals and groups in the same societies (Furumoto, 2009).

Different societies have their own historical developments and foundations thus giving a wider support of multicultural psychology. However, it would be agreeable that the concepts related to multiculturalism began somewhere during the 19th century. This development focused on some of the best approaches and strategies to understand the interaction and social integration of individuals from different backgrounds (Organista et al., 2009). The idea emerged as a philosophical aspect whereby a pragmatic movement emerged n the West. In the early 20th century, the psychological field would become a new idea that led to pluralism. During the time of European imperialism in different parts of the world, different scholars and historians were concerned about the way forward towards cultural associations (Bracey & Gove-Humphries, 2003). This can be used to explain why the concept is ever changing in the present world.

In its early developments, individuals were observed to integrate in the society without necessarily having to base themselves on issues related to their cultural ideas and position (Furumoto, 2009). This ideology led to the unity of individuals from various cultures and with different origins. This would also be succeeded by new ideas when different individuals and persons would come together with similar thoughts and form a society (Danker, 2012). During the start of the modern world, it was evident that earlier social groups were broken thus resulting in the formation of new states. Such states and individuals in different societies such as Asia were observed to form the concept of multiculturalism and establishment of new states. This would result in the creation of new states with their sovereignty. The establishment of such states became the best approaches through which people would protect themselves and engender themselves. Lee, Rosen, & Burns, (2013) have shown that

"multicultural issues have arguably become the fastest growing area of study within counseling psychology" (p.154).

In some other societies, new movements were established thus resulting in new dynamics. However, there were observations of regional differences existed in these societies thus making it impossible to achieve the targeted goals. Some societies had new forms of leadership characterized by continued torture and oppression. That being the case, some of the western nations would consider such societies as oppressive. Some of these cultures were observed in Ottoman and Austro-Hungary. With the oppression in these societies, some of the developed nations only consider the states as illegitimate.

The idea of multiculturalism can be observed to have emerged due to the unionization of different individuals within a society and eventually forming their own state. With properly enforced social unity, it would be possible to establish a society and form even a country (Chao, Wei, Good, & Flores, 2011). The psychological concept goes further to explain how it was possible for these states to develop new policies and even promote a national language. The primary education and the consideration of a national language were considered an essential aspect towards the development of a nation. They pioneers also went ahead to suppress or ignore different ideas thus promoting cultural assimilation. This means that the current policies and historical developments have significantly been plating a unique role and duty towards the development of modern psychological concepts and theories related to multiculturalism. Lisi, Rios, Agard-Jones,. & Hill, (2009) have also shown that

"Since the 1970s…. multicultural education aimed to have students think critically about problems in society that had their origins in lack of representation of people of color and their contributions in education" (p.185).

From this understanding, it would be notable that the 19th century development helped a lot to bring new ideas and concepts within the wider area of multiculturalism. From the 19th century, the psychological concept has been gaining much attention and development. This has resulted mainly from the ongoing desire and approach to safeguard national policies, identities, and ideologies. In the recent times, the ideas of multiculturalism have been becoming key considerations with the increasing wave of globalization (Seniors, 2007). The establishment of new policies and formation of international organizations have been trying to promote the idea and make it relevant towards global associations and development.

It would be observed that there have been different cultural aspects and values that have been widely developed and studied over the centuries (Bracey & Gove-Humphries, 2003). These have been characterized by different anecdotal reports and even writings to show some unique issues and ideas. Most of them define the Asian and American groups throughout the 18 and 19th centuries. Some psychologists and anthropologists have managed to observe the unique values that have been shared by different individuals practicing different practices such as Taoists and Buddhists. That being the case, it would be clearly notable that there is a correlation between the ideas of multiculturalism and the ancient philosophers in different schools of thought (Lisi, Rios, Agard-Jones, & Hill, 2009). For instance, the Confucian and Buddhist philosophers are believed to have played enormous roles and ideas towards the establishment of modern day multicultural psychology.

During the time of these philosophers and thinkers, it was widely observed that the individuals considered the relevance of societal roles, fulfilling family needs and promoting the wider good and welfare of the society. The individuals were also observed to promote personal gains and success while embracing the importance of societal relationships. Such developments were necessary because they made it easier to have the best ideas and at the same time promote multicultural values and behaviors (Franklin, 2009).

On top of this, it would be worth noting that many immigrants during the modernism period were observed to experience different hostilities in their new societies. However, they would still remain embedded to their cultural background and even offer new supportive ideas towards a better society. Multiculturalism would thus become a significant field when new values developed due to issues of racism (Adams & Welsch, 2009). These values would be properly observed in the American society especially during and after the slave trade period. From such developments, it would be agreeable that different psychological advances and strategies have been playing a leading role towards ensuring that there have been the best development and realization of new ideas within the wider area of psychology and human relations (Danker, 2012).

The study of Asian-American psychology has offered new insights through which psychological developments and relations would be clearly understood from a historical context. The historical developments have consistently offered an intriguing trend whereby new concepts and historical aspects have been noted to provide the best forces that continue to resonate in the lives of many Americans and societies across the world (Pace & DiGamillo, 2010). The observation of different cultural groups and societies has offered useful ideas and concepts through which the issue of majority and minority psychology has remained a favorite area of study. This has helped scholars and anthropologists to consider new strategies through which new pride and treatment of historical ideas could be realized (American Psychological Association 2012).

Modern literatures have offered different theories and concepts that played unique roles towards the realization of the present social groups and societal integrations. Such observations have offered new insights through which the developments of monoculturalism and multiculturalism have… [END OF PREVIEW]

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