Homegrown Terrorism and International Research Paper

Pages: 8 (2510 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 5  ·  Level: College Junior  ·  Topic: Terrorism

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] The message behind such actions is basically sending terrorist repercussions rather than following a logical path. These political acts usually points fingers at a general underprivileged society. The aim is to acquire some political power and rights to demand their rights. Conventional terrorism is domestic by default. Many extremists' groups and terrorists organizations have agents and supporters all across the world, their individual factions act on their own for instance IRA, ALF/ELF and Tamil Tigers.

These religious factions generally demand some political rights such as autonomous boundaries and rights to a government. In many cases, radicals and religious extremists generally look beyond their own self-interest. Their demands are broad and extend personal gains. This kind of violence is unreasonable and hasn't solved any problem as of yet, but it shows clearly that a problem persists unsolved. Institutions should be held accountable for their actions as they should remove the vices from a society.

The government can take action in this regard giving separatist groups some political autonomy. They can also induce some regulation for minorities or abolish political organizations or institutions to calm down these homegrown extremists. Agreed that succumbing to terrorist demands is an unacceptable reaction by the government; but it is better to agree to their demands in any case otherwise, chaos ensues. These terrorist groups have no limits and boundaries, but some of them have ethics and morale. Hence, they will oblige to negotiations and promote dialogue. This is true in case of both Kashmir separatists in Indian occupied Kashmir, as well as TTP in Pakistan.

When one begins to accommodate terrorist groups, then it is appropriate to ask a question, 'Why did terrorism become a sane choice?' both India and Pakistan realized that terrorism becomes rational when human rights are ignored as promised by liberal democracies and government institutions. Arguably, the promised human rights were not enforced which instigated terrorism. But for this specific matter, America and European Union are quite liberal societies and law enforcement in both these regions is on the spot. This is where homegrown extremism in one country is separate from homegrown extremism in another country. Economic, political and social conditions are factors that create differences between these homegrown groups.

It is written in UN charter that religious freedom and expression is to be allowed. However, in most third world countries, it is not implemented at all for that matter. A case in point is when public is barred from displaying religious expression. People can practice religions as they require, wear their religious clothes and practice in their holy places but not spread it outside of their circles. The view of the majority is that once a religious movements gains ground, then it spread like wildfire, hence it's better to stifle it. This view is currently spreading, slowly but surely, in Europe as well. Ban on Hijab in France and some other places as well will surely give reason for radicalization. Homegrown terrorism therefore can assume the face of political terrorism as is the case of transactional terrorism sponsored by groups like Al Qaeda.

In both Europe and America, there is a social gap amid the Muslim and non-Muslim population as indicated by a number of studies (Lacey, 2008). Ethnicity, race and religion is externalizing and sidelining Muslims in both Europe and America. The Muslims living in both of these societies have selected self externalization for buffering against external forces. Muslims face externalization in these societies more often. The political, social, interpersonal tensions have risen over the years which certainly pave way for homegrown terrorism. This is again where transactional terrorism and homegrown extremism are similar. Both focus on and recruit individuals who have been marginalized from society and who feel they have little to no opportunity in the present setup.

Conclusion

If governments around the word were able to fulfill its objective and deliver what it promises, homegrown terror would seize to exist. This fulfillment of objective and delivering on promises can be correlated with Saint Leo University's core values of integrity, which asserts, "The commitment of Saint Leo University to excellence demands that its members live its mission and deliver on its promise. The faculty, staff, and students pledge to be honest, just, and consistent in word and deed (Saint Leo University, 1889)."

In the case of homegrown terrorism and extremism, as it relates to Saint Leo University's core values, if governments were be able to give rights to minorities and promoting equality for all, individuals would live in a socially cohesive environment and wouldn't resort to radicalization, lessening terrorism and terrorist motivations. Having a pluralistic approach to fighting terrorism will assist in count terrorist activities by concentrating on individuals alone. The conditions prevailing in the society will improve as governments will ensure that human rights are upheld. The right of freedom of interchange, secession and of expression must exist. When states are staunch in implementing human rights as well as concentrating on rights o f people then, citizens will start taking their rights more seriously too. When cultural pluralism is implemented in government policies then it will be shadowed in society as well as people will treat each other with respect, hospitality, reciprocity and tolerance. Having a just society which has zero tolerance for extremist practices will result in less terrorist breeding and activities per se.

References

Hoffman, B. (2006). Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press.

Kirby, A. (2007). The London Bombers as 'Self-Starters': A Case Study in Indigenous Radicalization and the Emergence of Autonomous Cliques. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 30(5): 415.

Lacey, J. (2008). A Terrorist's Call to Global Jihad: Deciphering Abu Musab Al-Suri's Islamic Jihad Manifesto. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press.

O'Hair, H. Dan, Robert L. Heath, Kevin J. Ayotte, and Gerald R. Ledlow. (2008). Terrorism: Communication and Rhetorical Perspectives. New Jersey: Hampton Press Publications.

Ranstorp, M. (2006). Mapping Terrorism Research - State of the Art, Gaps and Future Direction. Stokholm: Routledge Publications.

Reiss, H. (1970). Kant's Political Writings. Cambridge: University Printing House.

Saint Leo… [END OF PREVIEW]

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