Homelessness Among the Veteran Community Literature Review Chapter

Pages: 15 (4384 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 18  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Sociology

Furthermore, the physical and psychological injuries from the war reduce a veterans' employability. They end up being lacking employment hence financial instability. Veterans also face a number of barriers like lack of stable employment, being unable to budget and make ends meet, limited knowledge when it comes to finances, poor judgment when it comes to making decisions that involve finances and lack of material security. These mental factors exist independently away from mental health diagnosis.

Programs available to the veteran homeless community compared to regular homeless community

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There are many programs available for the homeless population all over America, indeed programs that are available for veteran homeless community are more compared to those of the regular homeless community. According to Tsai, Mares & Rosenheck (2013a), most of the programs are focused mainly on the veteran homeless population since they perceive them as the ones who need help most as compared to those regular homeless people in the community. O'Toole, Conde-Martel, Gibbon & Fine, (2009) highlight many reasons for these, first of all the veteran homeless population are often diagnosed with mental and post traumatic stress disorders, most of them have injuries and disabilities they sustained in the course of serving the nation in the wars. Therefore most of the programs focus on them in order to help them recover from these disorders they are diagnosed with after the war which the other portion of the homeless population is unlikely to be having. The programs are created in such a way that hey rehabilitate these homeless veterans and help them lead normal lives like before they went into war.

Literature Review Chapter on Homelessness Among the Veteran Community Assignment

Another reason for many of the programs focusing on the homeless veterans is the fact that they are considered as heroes as Tessler, Rosenheck & Gamache, (2002a) argue out. The homeless veterans are taken in by the programs as a sign of gratitude for their participation and input in these wars for the sake of their countries. On the other hand regular homeless people are not regarded with any importance since they have not done anything substantial for the country hence they do not deserve anything in return. Therefore most of the programs set up are focused on homeless veterans since they are viewed as being very important to the nation and hence they have to be helped as a way of giving back to them for their service to the nation. In fact most of these programs aim to eliminate homeless veterans from the community and prevent any more veterans from becoming homeless in future.

Is the veteran homeless community stigmatized more than regular homeless community?

Numerous surveys have been carried out comparing homeless veterans and their regular homeless counterparts in the community. Results from these surveys widely indicate that the homeless veterans have been overrepresented within the population. The overall proportion of veterans among the homeless population is higher than the proportion of veterans in the general population.

According to Chinman, Hannah & McCarthy (2009) veterans are looked at as a percentage of the general population compared to veterans as a percentage of only the homeless population and a determination of the likelihood of veterans being homeless as compared to the non-veterans. This clearly indicates that homeless veterans are given more attention as compared to the other regular homeless population. Tsai J., Mares, A. & Rosenheck, A., (2013b) further note that a lot of focus and emphasis is put on the homeless veteran population as compared to the regular homeless population. This is a clear indication that in fact the regular homeless population is more stigmatized compared to the veteran homeless population.

Studies tend to show that homeless veterans are older and more educated as compared to the homeless nonveterans. Therefore this tends to make the regular homeless population looked down upon as compared to the veteran population. This is because the veteran population is perceived to be old people and with multiple problems and injuries they got during wars. Thus they are termed as more vulnerable and in need compared to the regular homeless populations as observed by Tessler R., Rosenheck R., & Gamache G., (2002b). Therefore this makes the regular homeless population face a lot of stigma from the community since they are considered as being uneducated young people who are simply lazy to earn a living. The veteran population is focused on more by the government and other non-governmental organizations. They aim at ensuring that the veterans do not end up on the streets. They have little concern if any when it comes to the regular homeless people in the community.

Obstacles faced by female homeless veterans vs. male homeless veterans

Homelessness among women is expected to go up as more women are joining the military and are getting reintegrated into the community as veterans. According to Tessler R., Rosenheck R. & Gamache G., (2002c), many women veterans face numerous challenges when getting back to their civilian lives which are different from those their male counterparts face, this increases their susceptibility to Homelessness. There are numerous obstacles those female homeless veterans which the male homeless veterans do not face. These include raising children on their own without having a place they can call home. Most of the programs lack sufficient resources for providing housing for children of the homeless women veterans and those few that are available have restrictions on the number of children and age limits.

Additionally homeless women veterans also face a lot of obstacles when it comes to employment. This is exacerbated further by lack of accessible and affordable child care for their children so that they can look for jobs on an equal ground as their male counterparts. Additionally, many of the skills that women veterans learn during military service often do not translate back to civilian workforce and in most cases the skills are predominantly male field.

Washington, Yano, McGuire, et.al, (2010) point out yet another obstacle faced by homeless veteran women as being post traumatic stress disorder. A study conducted shows that women who experience Military Sexual Trauma (MST) are more susceptible to PTSD. Cases of MST are on the rise as one in every five women reports having experienced MST. This clearly indicates that MST is only associated with women and hence a high percentage of the homeless veteran women are often diagnosed with PTSD. Most of the women fear being ostracized or reprisal hence they end up not reporting abuse. Because those who experience personal violence which includes rape are more likely to experience homelessness, women veterans who experience MST are generally at a greater risk of experiencing homelessness particularly when this is compounded with PTSD. After women return from deployment, women veterans who need assistance often isolate themselves which reduces their access to critical interventions that can prevent homelessness. Some women often do not self-identify themselves as veterans and may feel uncomfortable in seeking services through the veteran association centers. Homeless veteran women also have difficulties in accessing housing services due to the safety and security concerns that surround women. Most of the programs have cited security concerns as a barrier for delivering services.

All these obstacles affect homeless women veterans and not homeless male veterans hence a clear indication that women experience a lot of challenges as opposed to their male counterparts.

Older homeless veterans vs. younger homeless veterans

The number of young homeless veterans is now on the rise this is because more and younger people are now joining the military. The number of young people that are being deployed is now on the rise. Most of these young people come back after service and end up in the streets as homeless veterans. However these young veterans face a lot of stigma from the society for their homeless nature because they are termed as strong enough to get back into civilian employment compared to older homeless veterans. They are perceived to still have a lot of life them hence they can easily maneuver into employment like the rest of the young civilians. They are also termed as being competitive in the civilian job market since they are full of energy and have a whole life ahead of them. This is unlike the old homeless veterans who are weak and in most cases do not have energy left to continue working. Molinari, Brown, Frahm & Casey, (2010) state that the young homeless veterans are often termed as lazy people who do not want to work and want to rely on assistance from Veteran Association programs. As much as this might sound true it is not always the case, this is because the same problems that old homeless veterans face are the same ones that their on counterparts face including the disabilities sustained from duty, mental and psychological disorders and many other challenges faced by homeless veterans. Therefore the young veteran homeless people should not be stigmatized or sidelined on… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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