Research Paper: And Hospitality Industry

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[. . .] The elements that were regarded as most important in this revolution were: justice, which is referred to as adalah, freedom, which is referred to as hurriyah, dignity, which is referred to as karamah, and respect, which is referred to as ihtiram. (Moadde and Young-Demarco et al., 2012, pp. 1-25) The demands of the protestors included the following:

The authorities shall respect the rights of the individuals as a citizen of the country and shall not infantilize them and must not treat them as their subordinates. (Moadde and Young-Demarco et al., 2012, pp. 1-25)

Individual citizens shall be provided with a life of dignity and respect rather than a life in which they are humiliated by the public authorities and coerced by the security forces. (Moadde and Young-Demarco et al., 2012, pp. 1-25)

The individuals shall be treated with equality in relation to the provision of awards and shall not be provided with clientelistic awards on the basis of the level of compliance. (Moadde and Young-Demarco et al., 2012, pp. 1-25)

The rule of law shall be in place in an appropriate manner in relation to both despotic law and special law for the elites as well (Moadde and Young-Demarco et al., 2012, pp. 1-25) and finally,

All the individuals shall be provided with an equal right to move with the global trends towards prosperity, progress, education and participation in democratic matters. (Moadde and Young-Demarco et al., 2012, pp. 1-25)

2.2. Importance of Tourism in the Effected Regions

Middle Eastern and North African countries are known for the ancient tourist points and locations. These ancient locations a number of tourists to these regions each year. In some of the Arab countries is the backbone of economy. In addition to that, it is the primary source of earning hard money in Tunisia, Egypt, Syria, Jordan. (Staff Of U.S. Department Of Commerce International Trade Administration, 2011, pp. 1-7)

Furthermore, it also provides hundreds and thousands of jobs to a number of people in the Middle Eastern region. The image of these countries as tourist locations shook violently as a result of the revolution initiated by the Arab spring. This image tumbled in the eyes of the European tourists, who cover 80% of the market of Middle East, specifically. (Staff Of U.S. Department Of Commerce International Trade Administration, 2011, pp. 1-7)

Tourism sector contributes effectively to the gross domestic product of the regions under consideration. Till 2010, earnings from tourism had an important share in the total gross domestic product. Furthermore, this sector also provides employment to a number of people in the Middle Eastern region. It can, therefore, be concluded that the tourism sector contributed effectively and enormously to the economic growth of the Middle Eastern region. (Staff Of U.S. Department Of Commerce International Trade Administration, 2011, pp. 1-7)

The graphs below indicates the contribution of the tourism sector to the gross domestic product, employment and exports of the countries in the Middle Eastern region:

(Staff Of U.S. Department Of Commerce International Trade Administration, 2011, pp. 1-7)

2.3. Negative Impacts of Arab Spring on the Tourism Sector of the Middle Eastern Region

The revolutions associated with Arab spring were accompanied by a general atmosphere that led towards a decline in the tourist activities, which affected the tourism sector of the Middle Eastern region in a detrimental manner. In the present year, however, these regions have regained some of the stability in their tourism sector. But as a result of the Arab spring, and the violence which was associated with it, the major tourist destinations of the travel agencies were shifted to other areas of the Mediterranean, which were not affected by the revolution. (Masetti and Friedman et al., 2013, pp. 1-5)

The Arab spring led towards an evidently detrimental impact on the tourism activities and overall growth of the tourism sector of the Middle Eastern Region. This is because the violence and revolutions that were associated with the Arab spring forced the tourists to change their destination to the regions which were safer and less risky. (Masetti and Friedman et al., 2013, pp. 1-5)

According to analysts, the locations in Middle Eastern region were affected in both a positive and a negative manner. The first tourist destination that was affected in a negative manner as a result of the Arab spring is Egypt. The second location to be effected negatively was Syria, which was followed by Yemen and Morocco as well. (Masetti and Friedman et al., 2013, pp. 1-5)

Turkey and UAE, on the other hand, are two of the locations whose tourism sector benefitted from the Arab spring. This is because these locations became the center of attention of the tourists after the initiation of the Arab spring. So it can be concluded that Arab spring had a varying impact on tourism sector of various regions of the Middle East. (Haerens and Zott, 2013, pp. 58-93)

Decline in the tourism sector of the Middle East is one of the most immediate and evident impacts of the Arab spring. The number of tourists or the tourist arrivals in the top five tourist destinations of the Middle East, which include the regions of Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Jordan and Lebanon fell by almost a quarter as a result of Arab spring. The number of tourist arrivals declined from 20 million in the first half of the year 2010 to 15 million in the first half of the year 2011. (Masetti and Friedman et al., 2013, pp. 1-5)

The regions of Egypt and Tunisia confronted the most severe decline in the year 2011. The decline confronted by both these regions amounted to 40%. The number of tourist arrivals somewhat recovered in the year 2012 but these arrivals were lower than the number of arrivals in the pre-revolution period. (Masetti and Friedman et al., 2013, pp. 1-5)

This decline had an influential and negative impact on the economic activity and growth of the affected regions. This is because the tourism receipts contribute significantly to the gross domestic product of the regions of Lebanon, Jordan Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt. Therefore, it can be concluded that the decline in the tourism sector had a significant and evident effect on economic growth of the above mentioned regions. (Masetti and Friedman et al., 2013, pp. 1-5) The graph below demonstrate the contribution of tourism receipts and activities in the gross domestic product of Lebanon, Jordan Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt:

(Masetti and Friedman et al., 2013, pp. 1-5)

The graph below indicates the decline in the tourism sector of the Middle Eastern region which followed the Arab spring revolution. (Masetti and Friedman et al., 2013, pp. 1-5) The regions covered by this graph include Egypt, Tunisia, Lebanon, Jordan and Morocco.

(Masetti and Friedman et al., 2013, pp. 1-5)

3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This section of the research discusses the tools and methods that have been deployed for the collection, analysis and presentation of the data.

3.1. Data Collection

The research has primarily deployed secondary data. The data has been collected from the research that already exists on the topic under consideration. Secondary data here can be defined as the data that has already been collected and published and is available to the general public. (Saunders and Lewis et al., 2003, pp. 98-165)

The data has been collected from the published books, published and online researches and the academic and organizational researches that are related to the impact of Arab spring on the tourism sector of the Middle Eastern region. (Saunders and Lewis et al., 2003, pp. 98-165)

In addition to that, appropriate consideration has been given to the validity and relevance of the data during the course of this research. It was ensured that the data came from relevant and authentic publishers. Any source that came from unidentified or unauthentic publisher was not included in this research. (Saunders and Lewis et al., 2003, pp. 98-165)

3.2. Selection of Keywords

Selection of keywords plays an important role in the appropriate collection of data. Appropriate keywords were being selected so that the researcher may get an access to the right quality of the data. It was kept under consideration that the keywords, which were deployed in this research, must be closely related to the topic under consideration. (Cooper and Schindler, 1998, pp. 58-72)

The keywords used in this research included, 'the impact of Arab spring on the tourism sector of Middle East', 'Arab Spring and Middle Eastern tourism', 'Impacts of Arab Spring' and 'Tourism industry of the Middle Eastern region' etcetera. (Polit-O'hara and Hungler, 1993, pp. 109-350)

3.3. Research Method

The research method used in this research is qualitative. The researcher deployed an explanatory research approach for the purpose of this research. This is because the research aimed at explaining the impacts of the Arab spring and the atmosphere that accompanied it rather than quantifying these impacts. (Polit-O'hara and Hungler, 1993, pp. 109-350) The major differences that exist between quantitative and qualitative research are listed in the… [END OF PREVIEW]

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And Hospitality Industry.  (2014, March 23).  Retrieved May 20, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/hospitality-industry/5651952

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"And Hospitality Industry."  Essaytown.com.  March 23, 2014.  Accessed May 20, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/hospitality-industry/5651952.