HRM Outline Human Resource Management an Analysis Thesis

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HRM Outline

Human Resource Management

An analysis of how to utilize Human Resources to create or maintain a competitive advantage within the modern business environment.

Synthesis Review

Leadership Background

Organizational Leadership Models

Leadership Development

Employee Selection

Training

Learning Culture

Cultural Dimension

Every modern organization has a human resources department to manage its employees and can range from a single person to an entire human resources department with hundreds of HR employees. Furthermore, human resources can be considered more of a support function or administrative function in some organizations, while in others it is considered the backbone that can drive an organization to innovation and build a learning culture and create a competitive advantage in the industry. The problem in many modern organizations is that they do not utilize human resources in a way that is consistent with the modern business cycle. An organization is as only as good as its people as well as the organization of those people. Therefore, in a way, human resources is what drives business and implementing the best practices is no longer an option for companies that wish to stay competitive in the modern environment. This analysis will focus on ways that organizations can lead their organization with advanced human resource practices that can propel them into perpetual growth.

Introduction

The role of human resources in an organization has changed and evolved dramatically since its inception. The field can trace its roots to the introduction of scientific management and the development of specialization during the industrial revolution. It was during this time organizations began to learn how to cooperate in order to work as functioning teams. However, today's human resources management had developed to previously unimaginable heights. There has been a transformation from simply hiring and administering employee data and records to leading an organization's culture and creating a competitive advantage. Today's advanced human resources play a comprehensive roll in the organization and can be a leader in all of the different business functions. This analysis will provide a short history of the development of human resources followed by some of the leading best practices that are used in today's competitive business world and introduce training and development and analyze the recent developments in this field as they relate to effectiveness and how they support organizational change.

Chapter I

Hypothesis

It is hypothesized that organizations that adopt the best practices and play a more comprehensive role in the organization will outperform those that do not; especially in regard to organizations that are able to foster a learning culture and manage organizational change.

Methodology

To test this hypothesis a qualitative research approach will be used to collect the data found in primary and secondary sources to provide the foundational analysis. A literature review will be conducted that focuses on collecting the best practices and applications of advanced human resources practices and the results of these applications.

Synthesis Review

The literature review primarily focuses on leadership as a driver of organizational success. Transformational leadership is noted as one of the most popular models for creating organizational change however alternative models are also provided and can be useful in different situations. Training and training effectiveness as well as executive coaching are also listed as way to play a supportive role in leadership.

Chapter II

Literature Review

The methodology for investigating the problem will be conducted by the compilation of secondary research and a qualitative analysis will tackle various elements of human resources that can give an organization a competitive advantage in virtually any industry.

Leadership Background

Leadership is studied by almost every discipline in the social sciences and from every perspective imaginable. Researchers and practitioners attempt to identify any relevant factors related to leadership because it is such an important role in virtually every organization. Leadership touches everyone's lives in one way or another. Therefore, it is a common practice to try to understand what makes a leader successful or effective. This information is then used to either identify or train potential leaders so that their organization can be more successful. Usually then end goal is measured in some form of productivity improvement on an organizational level. However, leadership was historically relevant to only those in positions of power or popularity in society until the specialization of labor ushered in the Industrial Revolution.

The era of Industrial Revolution is the period that first introduced the modern age. The specialization of labor allowed people to work together as teams to complete tasks that required cooperation (such as in an assembly line). This also led to technological breakthroughs that allowed for new systems of mechanization of various agricultural processes as well as the introduction of textile manufacturing. The owners of capital would employee laborers to trade their time and effort for money and thus the modern monetary system began to take hold. This also ushered in a power struggle between laborers and the owners of capital. Working conditions were hash in the industrial revolution and it was often the case that employers would demand as many hours as possible from their employees.

The working conditions were also generally horrific. In many cases the accidents were fatal. Factory workers worked 12 or more hours a day and a seven-day work week. Employees were not entitled to vacation, sick leave, and unemployment compensation. In 1882, the average of 675 laborers was killed in work-related accidents each week (McDougal, 2000). Between 1890 and 1910, the number of women working doubled from 4 million to more than 8 million as employers tried to fill more positions and roughly 20% of the boys and 10% of the girls under 15 held full-time jobs. Furthermore, the jobs for children and women paid the lowest wages and left little time for family affairs. However, it was later found that the scientific method could be applied to management and leadership in order to increase productivity which helped to improve working conditions by working smarter and not harder. Thus the first organizational leaders were really working in the field of human resources.

Frederick Taylor is usually credited as the first pioneers in the field of management that used a scientific perspective. The followers of Taylor would expand on his ideas in a variety of ways; such as Henri Fayol, who added the theory of administrative management, and Max Weber, who added the levels of bureaucracy. With each new generation of organizations and leaders different ideas and concepts that improved upon the foundation of the division of labor. The division of labor was introduced it allowed individuals to specialize in a specific task which greatly improved the efficiency of the way most goods were produced. The theories of scientific management, administrative management, and bureaucracy were developed to help organizations cooperate internally towards some shared goal.

One of the most popular of the modern management gurus of the twentieth century was Dr. W. Edwards Deming. Deming probably impacted the field of management and leadership more than anyone else in the contemporary period. Deming's 14 points of management were first introduced in after the Second World War in Japan in the 1950's when the Japanese to help them improve their quality control when the entire country was rebuilding its industrial base (Deming, 2011). Deming's approach was to continuously look for more efficient and effective ways to coordinate teams so that they could work together to reach organizational goals.

Deming was one of the first to take a multi-disciplinary approach to the inner workings of an organization that borrowed form engineering, physics, as well as statistics. From his perspective, he saw the organization as a dynamic and flowing set of interconnected systems. By looking at production as a dynamic process and not something more static, it allows leaders in an organization to take a more holistic approach to leading an organization in an evolving business environment. His theories were applied to various industries included manufacturing companies, telephone companies, railways, carriers of motor freight, consumer researchers, census methodologists, hospitals, legal firms, government agencies, and research organizations in universities (Bennet & Slavin, 2009).

Organizational Leadership Models

Researchers have developed several different leadership models to try to understand all of the various nuances of leadership. However, one of the interesting debates is whether or not leadership can be taught or if it is more of a natural ability. It is generally understood that leadership abilities can be improved upon no matter what level of natural talent an individual has. Thus leadership can be considered some combination of natural ability, acquired knowledge, and some factor of experience as well. Thus leadership can be practiced and learned but not everyone might have the natural ability to make it to the highest level; similar to practice and training with athletes and professional sports. Not every athlete that trains hard can make it to the professional level.

Leadership does not have to result from a single individual either. There some studies that focus on high performance work practices that involve employee involvement in organizational leadership (EIOL). This approach is built… [END OF PREVIEW]

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