Term Paper: Human Behavior Theories

Pages: 8 (2618 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 10  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Children  ·  Buy This Paper

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[. . .] This includes behavior, learning, physical and mental health. Research shows that parenting is the primary influence on a child's development. The first three years are the ones are the most sensitive periods for the optimal growth of a child.

First, exercises health and nutrition are critical in the development of a child. When the child's brain is relatively immature, it is vulnerable to the adverse environmental impacts on its developing functions and architecture. This creates a permanent impairment with lifelong adverse effects on mental and physical health learning and behavior. Disruption on the intensity, pattern, and timing of the environmentally and genetically determined messages can result in diminished functional capabilities and mal-organization of the child. One night Alejandro, Isagani's father came home fatigued and passed out on the couch. The child's mother called an ambulance that was to take him to the hospital. The loud sirens of the ambulance, fire truck and cop cars rang in Isagani's ears. He watched as the paramedics cut open his father's pants and shirt. Isagani did not cry and after a few hours, his father died.

Alejandro's death had a negative impact on Isagani's development. He began to isolate himself and did not talk to his teacher. He only communicated with his family members and did not comply with adult instruction even when instructed. His teacher complained that he was extremely defiant and independent. He prefers to stay alone in class and hates playing with other children in school. When Isagani plays with other children, he easily gets frustrated and hates to lose or be embarrassed. His school has taken strict measures by keeping Isagani from groups in the school to avoid him harming other kids. These measures include a restricted recess, his desk, and a bathroom chaperone.

During his meeting with the social work intern, he was withdrawn and sat very close to his mother. His mother talked on his behalf. She explained the nightmares that Isagani experienced every night. The nightmares include Isagani chasing after a man he could not catch up with irrespective of the speed used. The second nightmare was that of a kite that flew from the sky and bit him. When asked to draw his family, he drew his father with bulging muscles and excessively large size. It is evident that the child was very close to his father. The care and concern that his father showed him remained vivid in his mind. His father's death clearly affected his development both mentally, socially and emotionally.

Psychodynamic theory

This is the theory that was developed to help a person understand what is going in the mind of a patient. This helps to provide insight into how the patient views his experiences, relationships and the world, and how it affects his drives, preferences, behaviors, and personality. In general, it is the study of interaction of the psyche, personality, and various parts of the mind as they relate to motivational, mental, and emotional forces, especially at the unconscious level (Hall, 1954). It is also defined as the energy generated by human need (Klimek, 1979). Some assumptions are associated with the theory. First, the unconsciousness of an individual is the most powerful tool that affects the emotion and behavior of a person. The second assumption is that no behavior is without a cause, or undetermined. Thirdly is that childhood experiences greatly affects the behavior and emotions when adults. Fourthly, it is the super-ego, id, and ego make-up personality (Goldstein, 1995). The fifth assumption is that the various conflicts throughout a childhood development shape the overall personality (Freud, 1923). The cognitive approach attempts to explain the psychodynamics (Horowitz, 1988).

The theory asserts that in childhood, certain incidents that may occur produce certain behaviors in adulthood. Children adopt a number of defense mechanisms to deal with the challenges they may encounter. These defense mechanisms include displacement, repression, fantasy, projection, compensation, sublimation, intellectualization, regression, and projection. There are certain behaviors exhibited by children are explained by psychodynamic theory. A childhood event may cause fear and in an open space may trigger agoraphobia in adults. Hoarding behaviors may be because of childhood trauma. However, the greatest criticism of psychodynamic theory is that it is unscientific when analyzing human behavior. For instance, some scientists question the ability to study concepts like tripartite personality and unconscious mind. Relational theory is considered ideas that have grown out of a number of psychodynamic and clinical theories (Turner, 2011).

Attachment theory

I strongly believe that this theory clearly explains the child's behavior. According to research, infants need stable and safe persons who can provide a sense of security from which they can explore and venture out. At the initial stages, Isagani was a healthy baby delivered through natural birth. Isagani would turn and smile when he saw his parents. Isagani became attached to his father by the age of 21 months. He aped his father by touching his own nose for the first time. His father bought him a pair of blue pajamas, which he insisted on wearing every single night.

At the age of three years, Alejandro would take his son to a local park along with their dog. He would show his son how to build and fly a kite. Isagani would see his father working hard and would insist on helping him out. He could watch his father fix broken things in the house. He soon learnt how to tie the trash bag and take it to the dumpster. He would wake up every night and open the door for his father. We can clearly see that this close attachment between Isagani and his father helped him learn many things. It aided in his healthy development as a child. It is after his father's death that his development was interrupted. He became withdrawn and distant. He was defiant and arrogant and became easily irritable.

References

Conger, J.K., & Kramer, L. (2010). "Introduction to the Special Section: Perspectives on Sibling Relationships: Advancing Child Development Research"

Freud, S. (1923). "The Ego and the id." Norton and Company

Goldstein, E.G. (1995). "Ego Psychology and Social Work Practice" The Free Press 2nd Edition.

Hall, C.S. (1954). A Primer in Freudian Psychology. Meridian Book.

Horowitz, M.J. (1988). "Introduction to Psychodynamics - a New Synthesis." Basic Books. p. 3

Klimek, David (1979). "Beneath Mate Selection and Marriage - the Unconscious Motives in Human Pairing." Van Nostrand Reinhold. p. 3

Milton, J., Fabricius, J, Polmear, C. (2004) "A Short Introduction to Psychoanalysis" Sage publication

See, L.A. (2006). "Human Behavior in the social environment from an African-American perspective" Routledge (2nd Ed.)

Turner, J.T (2011). "Social Work Treatment: Interlocking Theoretical Approaches." Oxford University

Voydanoff, P. (2011). "Incorporating community into work and… [END OF PREVIEW]

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