Human Evolution and Ecology Research Paper

Pages: 4 (1246 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 5  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Junior  ·  Topic: Archeology


The Clovis hypothesis argues that early settler came from Siberia. The hypothesis reveals that men who came from Siberia were unable to return because of the glaciations blocking the area presently known as Canada. An archeologist such as James Adovasio believes that ancient people of Meadowcroft site in Pennsylvania are the earlier settler in the United States and they came from the Canadian ice-free corridor. Thus, there is genetic evidence that the early settler of the site came from Siberia based on the DNA comparison of the modern American and Siberian. However, the pre-Clovis evidence reveals that there is genetic diversity among the settler of the site. On the other hand, the linguistic evidence reveals that there are language diversities among Native Americans.

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However, Goebel, et al. (2008) argues that the earlier settlers of the Meadowcroft site compose of people from Siberia, and South America. Goebel, et al. (2008) support the evidence of the previous authors that the settlers of the site colonize the place following the huge glaciations of North America preventing them from going back. However, a report by National Park Service (2013) shows that Paleo-Indians are the early settlers of the site, before the 10,000 B.P, the Paleo-Indian inhabitants live in the late glacial environment. These inhabitants adapted to the late glacial environment of the time. The Meadowcroft excavations reveal large varieties of extinct Megafauna that include mammoth, mastodon, symbos and caribou.

The significant of the site based on the human evolution and migration reveals that large number of American descendants came from Siberia and northern part of Alaska. However, Paleo-Indians are the early settler of the site revealing the remarkable findings of the earliest human occupation of the new world.

Fact and Findings

TOPIC: Research Paper on Human Evolution and Ecology Assignment

"Unquestionably, the human skeletal evidence across the Americas shows that the New World was populated by Homo sapiens." (Goebel, et al. 2008, p 1500). The data collected reveals that the age of Meadowcroft site dated back to 15,000 years ago; however, small group of forager occupied North America before 15,000 years ago. Typically, Meadowcroft represents the human present between the 15,000 and 16,500 years ago. Essentially, the stratified of the multicomponent of the site reveals 20,000 artifacts, 33 fire floors, 150 fire pits, 52 ash as well as charcoal lens, 1.4 million plant remains, and a million faunal remains.

The data collected about the Meadowcroft Rockshelter provide the proof to move away from the Clovis-first hypothesis because the people of the New World are from Alaska and Beringia from the ice-free corridor, which is about 12,500 years ago, and, the arrival of the first American dated back to 15,000 years ago. Nevertheless, there is still no concrete accepted hypothesis that provides evidence of how people arrive in the new world. Nevertheless, the data collected from the Meadowcroft Rockshelter site has established that there is a presence of pre-Clovis culture in the site.

Interpretation of the Findings

The findings reveal that the present day Americans originates from the Siberia based on the scientific, genetic and archeological evidences. Although, American people might look different from the Siberian people, however, the comparative analysis of the DNA of Americans and Siberians are similar revealing that earlier settlers of the site are Siberians. Moreover, several artifacts discovered from the site point to the fact that earlier settlers of American are Siberian.


Adovasio, J.M., J. Donahue, D.R.P. Stuckenrath, R. (1998). Two decades of debate on Meadowcroft Rockshelter. North American Archaeologist, 19(4):317-341.

Goebel, T. et al. (2008). The Late Pleistocene Dispersal of Modern Humans in the Americas. Science, 319, 1497-1501.

Goodyear, A.C. (2007). Evidence for Pre-Clovis Sites in the Eastern United States. Paleoamerican Prehistory.

James, A. & Jake, P. (2003).The First Americans: In Pursuit of Archaeology's Greatest Mystery.

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How to Cite "Human Evolution and Ecology" Research Paper in a Bibliography:

APA Style

Human Evolution and Ecology.  (2014, July 6).  Retrieved September 20, 2021, from

MLA Format

"Human Evolution and Ecology."  6 July 2014.  Web.  20 September 2021. <>.

Chicago Style

"Human Evolution and Ecology."  July 6, 2014.  Accessed September 20, 2021.