Data Analysis Chapter: Human Factors Affecting Safe Operation

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¶ … Human Factors Affecting Safe

Operation Of The UAV

Study of Selected Human Factors affecting safe operation of the UAV

This chapter presents the findings of the thesis. The survey questionnaires are collected from the 35 respondents. The data are collected to test the following hypotheses:

Ho: "Majority of UAV pilots do not agree that graduating from Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT), to be under 40 years old and have a minimum of 100 flying hours are critical attributes that all safe UAV pilots should possess."

H1: "Majority of UAV pilots will agree that graduating from Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT), to be under 40 years old and have a minimum of 100 flying hours are critical attributes that all safe UAV pilots should possess."

Ho: "UAV pilots do not believe that the possession of computer skills and the lack of involvement in a "human related" aviation safety incident contributes to being a safe UAV operator in the USAF."

H2:"UAV pilots believe that the possession of computer skills and the lack of involvement in a "human related" aviation safety incident contributes to being a safe UAV operator in the USAF."

The findings are presented in the tabular and graphical forms. The descriptive statistics is used to summarize the findings and the inferential statistics is used to conclude on the findings based on the data collected. The data collected supports the first null hypothesis and rejects the first research hypothesis. However, the data supports the second research hypothesis and rejects the second null hypothesis.

Chapter 4: Findings

This chapter provides the findings of the thesis. The data collected are summarized using the descriptive statistics. The study also presents the inferential statistics that provides the conclusion of the whole data. The inferential statistics allows the researcher to test the hypotheses and generates the research findings. Based on the data collected, the data are analyzed and summarized using the graphs and tables. With the presentation from the graphs and tables, the researcher is able to provide the accurate picture of the findings and testing the hypotheses.

Descriptive Statistics

Table 19 provides the descriptive statistics, which reveals the summary of the findings. In the descriptive statistical table, standard deviation and means of all data are summarized. The descriptive statistics also summarizes the findings in percentages, which enables the researcher to present the findings in tabular and graphical forms. From the data collected and analyzed, the study supports the first null hypothesis, and rejects the first research hypothesis. The findings reveal that the data do not provide statistical significant to support the first research hypothesis. However, the study supports the second research hypothesis and rejects the second null hypothesis based on the data collected.

Inferential Statistics

The study uses the inferential statistics to infer the probability of using the data to test the hypotheses. The total number of 88 survey questionnaires is distributed; however, the researcher is able to collect 81 from the total 88 survey distributed to the respondents. 50 of the respondents filled out all the survey questionnaires. After analyzing the 50 survey questionnaires, there are suspected bias in the answers of the 15 respondents. Since the study intends to generate valid and reliable findings, the researcher discards the 10 survey questionnaires that contain suspected bias, and 35 filled survey questionnaires are finally accepted. Table 1 and Fig 1 present the summary of the survey finally accepted and used to generate the research findings.

Table 1: Summary of the Survey

Survey

Survey Collected

Percentages of survey collected

Total Number of Survey Distributed

88

Number of Survey Collected

81

92.05%

Survey completely filled out

50

56.82%

Number of Suspected Bias

15

17.04%

Accepted Returned Survey

35

39.77%

Fig 1: Summary of Survey Collected

Survey Questions and Findings

The first sub-problem is to identify and rank the most important experiences that the Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles (UAV) pilots must possess to operate safely based on the perceptions of the UAV pilots.

The first five questions rate the possible attributes of the UAV pilots. The questions are scaled and a numerical value is assigned to each question where 1 is scaled not very important and 5 scaled very important with the possible responses as follow:

1= Not Very Important 2= Not Important 3= Not Sure 4= Important 5= Very Important

The descriptive analysis is used to accomplish the first order. The descriptive analysis is able to identify the kind of distribution resulted for each question, and whether a second order analysis is essential.

Based on the Likert scale, the questions are as follows:

For a UAV pilot to demonstrate effective aviation safety, he or she should be a:

Question 1: Graduate from Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT)

1= Not Very Important 2= Not Important 3= Not Sure 4= Important 5= Very Important

Table 2:

Question 1:

Graduate from Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT)

Scale

Frequency

Percentage

Cumulative Frequency

Mean

Standard Deviation

1: Not Very Important

6

17.14%

6

2.914

1.40101

2: Not Important

10

28.57%

16

3: Not Sure

7

20%

23

4: Important

5

14.29%

28

5: Very Important

7

20%

35

Based on the findings of the statement, it is revealed that 16 respondents believe that graduating from the undergraduate training school is not important to demonstrate effective aviation safety while 12 respondents believe that it is important. Although, 7 respondents are not sure based on their response. Based on the percentages of the findings, it is revealed that 45.71% of the respondents agree that it is not important. While around 34.29% agree that it is important. Although, 20% of the respondents are not sure.

Table 2 and Fig 2 provide the summary of the findings of the question 1.

Fig 2: Illustration of the Findings of Question 1

Question 2

To demonstrate effective aviation safety, a Pilot should be Under 40 years old

1= Not Very Important 2= Not Important 3= Not Sure 4= Important 5= Very Important

Table 3:

Question 2: Pilot should be Under 40 years old

Scale

Frequency

Cumulative Frequency

Percentage

Mean

Standard Deviation

1: Not Very Important

15

15

43.86

2.057

1.1099

2: Not Important

8

23

22.86

3: Not Sure

7

30

20

4: Important

5

35

14.28

5: Very Important

0

35

0

Fig 3: Findings Pilot should be under 40

Based on the findings, it is revealed 66.72% of the respondents agree that to be under 40 is not important to demonstrate the effective aviation safety. Typically, only 34.28% of the respondents agree that to be under 40 years is important to demonstrate the effective aviation safety. The findings of the respondents of the survey question 2 supports the first null hypothesis and reject the first research hypothesis.

Question 3

To demonstrate effective aviation safety, a plot should have a:

Have a minimum of 100 flying hours.

1= Not Very Important 2= Not Important 3= Not Sure 4= Important 5= Very Important

Table 4:

Question 3: Have a minimum of 100 flying hours.

Scale

Frequency

Cumulative Frequency

Percentage

Mean

Standard Deviation

1: Not Very Important

7

7

20

3.2

1.549

2: Not Important

5

12

14.29

3: Not Sure

9

21

25.71

4: Important

2

23

5.72

5: Very Important

12

35

34.28

Fig 4: Having Minimum of 100 Flying Hours

Based on the findings, it is revealed that 34% of the respondents believe that it is not important while 40% of the respondents agree that it is important. However, the 25% of the respondents are not sure. Based on the findings from the survey, it is revealed that larger number of respondents believe that it is important to have minimum of 100 flying hours before demonstrating effective aviation safety.

Based on the results of the data presented, the paper presents whether the findings support the first null or alternative hypothesis.

Findings of the First Null and Alternative Hypotheses

Findings of the survey questions 1, 2 and question 3 assist the study to test the first null hypothesis that states:

H0: "Majority of UAV pilots do not agree that graduating from Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT), to be under 40 years old and have a minimum of 100 flying hours are critical attributes that all safe UAV pilots should possess."

Findings of the survey questions 1, 2 and question 3 also assist the study to test the first alternative hypothesis that states:

H1: "Majority of UAV pilots will agree that graduating from Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT), to be under 40 years old and have a minimum of 100 flying hours are critical attributes that all safe UAV pilots should possess."

To test the first null hypothesis, paper employs p-value, which is the level of statistical test to obtain the probability of observed difference and whether null hypothesis is true. The p-value is the probability of obtaining observed differences in the sampling variation. Conventionally, a p-value should be greater than 0.05 (5%) to accept the null hypothesis. However, the Chi-square is used to test the probability of the obverted difference between two variables, which reflects the p-value probability.

To test the first… [END OF PREVIEW]

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