Human Factors Leading to Aircraft Case Study

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SAMPLE EXCERPT . . .
Shappell & Wiegmann (2004) compares the human factors that cause the aircraft incidents at the ground level between civilian aircraft and military aircraft. The authors identify four human factors, which include:

Unsafe operator act

Organizational Influence

Unsafe Supervision

Precondition for unsafe acts

Unsafe act operators represent errors and violation. Errors represent physical and mental activities that prevent individuals to achieve their intended outcomes, while violation represents willful disregard of rules and regulations that governs the aircraft safety at the ground level. Violation that could lead to the civilian and military incidents at the ground level includes:

Failure of personnel to adhere to brief

Violation of the training rules

Failure to adhere to the pre-flight guideline. (Shappell, and Wiegmann, 2000).

Hypothesis

The hypothesis of this experiment is as follow:

H1: Human Factors leading to the aircraft incidents at the ground level is higher in the military aviation than the civilian aviation.

H0: Human Factors leading to the aircraft incidents at the ground level is higher in the civilian aviation than the military aviation.

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Table 1 provides the summary of the data collected and the research findings. The data analysis assists the researcher to deliver valid research findings.

Table 1: Summary of Research Findings

CIVILIAN

Skilled-Based Errors

Decision-Based Errors

Violation

General Aviation

80%

35%

15%

Commercial Schedule

60%

35%

30%

Commercial Non-Schedule

70%

40%

20%

Average

70%

Case Study on Human Factors Leading to Aircraft Assignment

36.6%

21.66%

CIVILIAN

Mean

0.43 (43%)

Median

0.35 (35%)

Standard Deviation

0.22 (22%)

MILITARY

US Army

50%

40%

30%

US Naval Helo

40%

60%

50%

US Naval TACAIR

60%

58%

30%

USAF TACAIR

60%

45%

5%

Average

52.5%

50.75%

25.75%

MILITARY

Mean

0.44 (44%)

Median

0.47(47.5%)

Standard Deviation

0.17(17)%

Method

This study uses experimental method to carry out the research. The study plans to determine if human factors leading to the aircraft incidents at the ground level is higher in the military aircraft than the civilian aircraft. The results of the experiment will be relevant to the aviation industry. The goal of this research is to determine the human factor leading to the aircraft incidents at the ground level. To achieve this objective, the study uses the hypothesis to test the validity of the experiment. Similar research has been conducted that compares human factors leading to the aircraft incidents at the ground level in the military and civilian aircraft. Shappell et al. (2004) compare military aircraft and civilian aircraft incidents. The authors use data collected on 16,000 military aircraft incidents and compare them to the civilian aircraft incidents in the United States. Shappell et al. (2004) research is similar to this study because the goal of this research is to compare the human factors leading to the civilian and military aircraft incidents.

The procedure used to carry out the experiment was by collecting data from case studies of aircraft incidents involving experimental aircraft in which human factors played significant roles. In all cases, engineers, operators, and managers contributed to all the incidents that occurred, and human factors such as design factors, physiological factors and organization factors were involved in the aircraft incidents.

The research also carries out comprehensive review of the research papers found in the U.S. government database in the Department of Defense and Department of Transport. The study also searches several academic databases to identify the quality journal articles to assist in completing this study. The paper searches academic database such as Ebscohost database, Science Direct, Emerald Insight and Google Scholar. The study derives several benefits from using academic and government database to complete this study. First, the study has been able to locate large volume of data quickly and cheaply to complete the study. Moreover, the study uses academic and government database to locate high quality data to complete the research.

Analysis

The paper uses several strategies to carry out the data analysis. First, the study searches for data from the premium academic database that contains only the quality research paper. All the data collected from the database are tailored to the research study. Moreover, the study handpicks some research papers completed by the authorities in the civilian and military aircraft. To identify quality research papers from academic and government database, the study uses the relevant keywords to search for data. Using the appropriate keywords, the researcher has been able to sort out appropriate quality data relevant to the study. The data analysis assists the researcher to deliver valid research findings.

Findings

Analysis of similar studies reveals that organizational influence has been the major human factor that affects civilian and aircraft incidents at the ground level. It is essential to realize that organization influence has been the major human factor that leads to all sorts of human errors. The upper-level management generally influences supervisory practice and skill acquisition within an organization.

However, the research findings show that organization influence leading to the skilled-based errors is more pronounced in civilian aircraft than the military aircraft. Data in the Table 2 and Fig 1 reveal that the skilled-based errors in the U.S. Army is 50% while the skilled-based errors in General Aviation is 80%. Overall average of skilled-based error that occurs in the civilian aviation is 70% while the overall average of skilled-based error in the military aviation is 52.5%.

Table 2: Skilled-Based Errors leading to the Civilian vs. Military Aircraft Incidents

CIVILIAN

General Aviation

80%

Commercial Schedule

60%

Commercial Non-Schedule

70%

Average

70%

MILITARY

US Army

50%

US Naval Helo

40%

US Naval TACAIR

60%

USAF TACAIR

60%

Average

52.5%

Source: Shappell & Wiegmann (2004)

Fig 1: Skilled-Based Errors leading to the Civilian vs. Military Aircraft Incidents

Analysis of the aircraft incidents from skilled-based errors shows that percentages of aircraft incidents from the skilled-based errors is higher in the civilian aircraft than the military aircraft. Typically, largest percentages of skilled-based errors are identified within the General Aviation. The findings show that personnel in the General Aviation does not receive effective training program to address the skilled-based errors. Thus, personnel within the General Aviation do not receive substantial level of training program compared to aircraft personnel of Commercial Aviation. Comparative analysis of skilled-based errors of civilian and military aircraft reveals that the percentage of the skilled-based errors in the civilian aviation is higher than the military aviation. The findings reveal that the military personnel are receiving more training program than the civilian personnel within the aviation sector. Since the occurrence of September 11, 2001 in the United States, the United States government is pumping more funds on defense to safeguard the American territorial integrity. Thus, the government is increasingly enhancing the training program of military personnel to address various human factors that could lead to the military aircraft incidents in the United States. (Stanton, Rafferty, & Blane, 2012).

Decision-Based Errors

On the other hand, there were lesser decision-based errors leading to the aircraft incidents at the ground level in civilian aircraft than the military aircraft. Data in Table 3 and Fig 2 reveal that the aircraft incidents at ground level in the General Aviation are 35% and the U.S. Naval is as high as 60%.

The overall percentage average of the decision-based errors in the military aircraft is 51% compared to 37% in the civilian aircraft. The major factor that makes the decision-based errors to be higher in the military aircraft than civilian aircraft is that many U.S. military base are located outside the United States where military personnel on the ground could be exposed to several number of difficulties at the troubled land. Thus, implementing effective decision making to alleviate errors in the trouble land may be challenging for military personnel.

Table 3: Decision-Based Errors leading to the Civilian vs. Military Aircraft Incidents

CIVILIAN

General Aviation

35%

Commercial Schedule

35%

Commercial Non-Schedule

40%

Average

36.6%

MILITARY

US Army

40%

US Naval Helo

60%

US Naval TACAIR

58%

USAF TACAIR

45%

Average

50.75%

Source: Shappell & Wiegmann (2004)

Fig 2: Decision-Based Errors leading to the Civilian vs. Military Aircraft Incidents

Violation

The findings reveal that violation is another human factor leading to the aircraft incidents on the ground. Violation is an arbitrary deviation from the laid down rules and regulations. However, the percentages of military personnel that willfully disregard the rules and regulations are higher than the civilian personnel who willfully disregard the rules and regulations. As can be seen in Table 4 and Fig 3, the percentages of military aircraft incidents occur due to violation in the U.S. Army is 30% while the aircraft incidents in General Aviation is 15%. The overall average percentage of military aircraft incidents that occur due to violation is 25.75% while the average percentages of civilian aircraft incidents are 21.6%.

Table 4: Human factor leading to Violation

CIVILIAN

General Aviation

15%

Commercial Schedule

30%

Commercial Non-Schedule

20%

Average

21.66%

MILITARY

US Army

30%

US Naval Helo

50%

US Naval TACAIR

30%

USAF TACAIR

5%

Average

25.75%

Source: Shappell & Wiegmann (2004)

Fig 3: Human factor leading to Violation

However, the overall findings show that human factors leading to the aircraft incidents at the ground level is higher… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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