Literature Review Chapter: Human Intelligence

Pages: 8 (2457 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 8  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Psychology  ·  Buy This Paper

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[. . .] In this case, it is quite possible that the individual may not know which security force has arrested him and who is conducting the interrogation.

Since the purpose of human intelligence is to promote national interest, the people involved in this process are not the common people. They are important to their nations and agencies. They are specially trained and the agencies spend huge amount on their trainings. It is no exaggeration to state that these people shape the destiny of the nations and are critical parts of strategic decision making. In the context of foreign affairs, they are actively involved. They are futuristic and their capabilities let them draw complete picture out of a dot.

In the context of recent trends of use of human intelligence in war in Afghanistan, the mentioned tactic is particularly important. The situation is Afghanistan is disturbed for the last many years and political instability has become a matter of routine. Because of involvement of U.S. forces and Al-Qaida, the clashes are on increase. Since the clashes are apparent, it is a practice that human intelligence is going on to come to know about the future plans of each other.

Conducting interrogation is not an easy task as the victim may have been trained on not to disclose any secret. In the events where sovereignty and integrity are involved, the captured victim prefers death to disobedience to his leader. On the other hand, the capturing forces are keen to get maximum possible information. In this process, the interrogation becomes harder for the information seeker and more painful for the victim. The information seeker pressurizes the victim to speak up as much as he can, while he is determined not to disclose anything till its final level of tolerance.

There are many brutal ways adopted in pressurizing the victim to disclose the facts and secrets. At times, the victim passes away as he cannot tolerate the brutal violence of security forces. It also happens most of the times that the security forces conduct proper research on how to afflict the victim ensuring that he will not pass away. It is because, if he passes away, the forces will lose an opportunity to get information and the matter can be highlighted at international platform inviting the attention of media and other international bodies.

There are many ways of pressurizing the victim. Many of them are physical as followed by the forces of all times. It was in 1985 when scholars identified the strength of psychological factors in affecting the mental state of victim (Sternberg, 1985). There was a detailed discussion upon types of intelligence yet the method of interrogation was not included in the discussion.

It was with the emergence of embroiled political situation among the nation because of changing faces and turning tables that the essence of human intelligence was recognised (Tsang, 2008).

Recruiting Sources

Since, the world has become aware of spy network spread everywhere; there are strict guidelines for people not to disclose any information to anybody who seems stranger. Yet, the security threat is one rise. It is. Therefore, mandatory that much training is imparted on human intelligence to prepare the nation for better handling of challenges (Sims and Gerber, 2005).

Human intelligence is emerging as a field in which designated institutions are established to train people on such grounds. It is important to mention here that because of infancy of the field, the literature is not much developed. The available literature is compiled in the context of wars and the practices. For instance, it is quite possible to gather instances of human intelligence used at various places, but it is quite difficult to determine which one can lead to desired results in all cases and which one must be avoided.

The primary point ensuring effectiveness of human intelligence practices is related to the training of information seeker. He must be trained enough to judge the personality of the victim and interrogate him accordingly. The role of psychological pressure is high important as it helps the information seeker play with the feelings and nerves of the victim.

Another important tactic related to boosting advantages of human intelligence and easing the process of interrogation is related to the plan about questions. It is broad daylight that human intelligence is a planned activity undertaken to accomplish a specific and critical purpose. It is, therefore, of utmost importance that interrogation is well planned and the information seeker is well aware of the nature of information to be sought. It is particularly important because the victim may also be trained on the same subject and may satisfy the information seeker with incorrect info.

Focused approach is critical to the success of interrogation. If the information seeker is focused and fully attentive, it is quite possible that he may extract much knowledge from the expressions and body language of the victim. Posing negligence while being eagle-eyed is also a tactic in interrogation which relaxes the victim and he becomes confused about the intention of the information seeker.

References

1. Hastedt, Glenn and Guerrier, Steven. 2010. Spies, Wiretaps and Secret Operations. USA: ABC-CLIO.

2. Holmes, Dave and Dixon, Norm. 2001. Behind the U.S. War on Afghanistan. Australia: Resistance Books.

3. Lansford, Tom. 2003. A Bitter Harvest: U.S. Foreign Policy and Afghanistan. England: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

4. Rothstein, Hy. 2006. Afghanistan and the Troubled Future of Unconventional Warfare. USA: Naval Institute Press.

5. Sims, Jennifer and Gerber, Burton. 2005. Transforming U.S. Intelligence. USA: Georgetown University Press.

6. Sternberg, Robert. 1985. Beyond IQ: A Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

7. Thaler, David. 2008. Future U.S. Security Relationships with Iraq and Afghanistan. USA: Rand Corporation.… [END OF PREVIEW]

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