Human Resources - Critically Appraise Term Paper

Pages: 15 (5631 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 31  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Business - Management

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Another study on the same subject by Buller (1988) found comparable results. He had also used methods similar to Golden and Ramanujam, especially in the characterization of the firms.

Many other researchers like Rowland & Summers (1981); Lorange & Murphy, (1984); Nkomo, (1984); Mills, (1985); Buller & Napier, (1993); and Brewster in 1994 have studied the same relationship between business strategy and human resource management. All of these studies give comparable results, and the total integration between business strategy and human resource management is normally not achieved in most cases. The first such study by Golden and Ramanujam had distinguished two important factors as critical factors and decisive for achieving certain desired levels of strategic organizations. These were separated into two groups which were found to be organization specific and human resource specific. They had found that all specific factors related to the human relations factors within the firm were ultimately linked to the personnel department, sometimes also called the HR function within the firms. The study found that most line managers or key operational executives spend very little time on the issues regarding personnel functions or HR. Thus it may be fair to assume that the framework of Golden and Ramanujam talks in essence about the co-operation and communication of the personnel department with the top management, and is not only about the integration within the firm between business strategy and human resource management.Download full Download Microsoft Word File
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Term Paper on Human Resources - Critically Appraise Assignment

Another very important aspect was the study of the evolution of the relationship aspects within the organization in these matters. When we look at the four evolutionary stages discussed by Golden and Ramanujam, we may see that they may be treated as evolutionary rather than separate stages. This gives us the concept that the firms will evolve through all the stages over time, which is also supported by their study being one to address the management role and the role of the personnel function. This may also lead to assumptions that co-operation and communications within the firms would improve over time and certainly, this would be beneficial to the firm itself. However, this does not assure us that this would lead to an integrated strategic human resources management. In spite of the absence of a clear answer to this question, the studies show that this development would certainly require many discussions about the positions and roles of the different functions within the organization. Whether as an end result, we shall achieve a better level of integration between business strategy and human resource management remains to be seen, but the matter in itself seems quite interesting. (Brewster, 1994).

All these studies have however concentrated on the desired high level of integration as the ingredient necessary for optimal performance of most firms. This seemed to have been first contested by Buller (1988) when he first stated that an absolute level of integration was not of a great importance, but later he had added that striving for two-way linkages or integrative linkages could be an advantageous tool for most firms, as this would help them meet the dynamic and unpredictable environments now present in most situations. In such highly competitive situations, firms with higher levels of integration between business strategy and human resource management would have an advantage. But, in all these studies, it has always been assumed that the level of integration achieved is always under the total desire of the firm. This basic assumption has been challenged by other authors who have stated that the level of integration that any firm can achieve depends a lot on the contextual and political factors then present (Quinn, 1980; Hendry & Pettigrew, 1986; Buller & Napier, 1993) Thus it seems clear to most people that one would be rather impractical in linking strategic human resource management only with the relationship between business strategy and human resource management. To maintain this assumption, we have to make many assumptions that become very difficult to accept. At the same time, there seem to be many other aspects that seem to be of as great an importance, and the total relationship is related to the content of the strategies of the organization and the human relationship policies and practices of the organization.

Image-Hospitality Industry

The hospitality industry is known as the second largest industry in the United States, and contains different segments like lodging, gaming, dining, cruise, airlines and other travel related services. This industry is known to be very people oriented or high- touch, and in this industry the issues for recruiting and other related tactics are very different from the industries which have high-tech. Enormous rewards and challenges come in this industry from certain distinct features that this industry has. The nature of operations in this industry makes it highly labor intensive and this offers great opportunities to the personnel managers. The labor force itself has three levels of line, middle management and executive. Most of the employees are concentrated in the line level and they make up about 65% of the total workforce. The information regarding staffing is carried out through newspaper advertising, community relations and word of mouth publicity. (Roberts, 1995)

The hospitality industry however has provided many young people the knowledge to maintain a schedule, get to work on time, and learn how to dress appropriately for the job. This also makes them amenable for the acceptance of guidance and direction from the supervisors, observe safety in workplaces, adjust with other employees, and observe business ethics, protocols and other workplace rules. The people entering the industry have to have certain skill levels and cannot be compared to the veteran professionals in other industries. The industry hires a lot of first time workers with no skills and experience. In this industry, people can join without any knowledge, then learn and prosper from the positions of washing dishes or preparing food to become executive chefs at $42,000 a year or more. The industry recruiters earn their living mostly from the recruitment of mid-managers. The salaries in United States range from $30K to 90 K. And the volume of recruitment is huge considering that there are more than 65,000 hotels and casinos, in additions to 450,000 restaurants. They all need people.

The executives in this industry differ from other industries in the sense that most of them develop totally in this industry and do not come over from other industries. Among the very few specialized search firms in this industry, there are the AESC members like HVS Executive Search, Dennis O'Toole Associates, and Robert Dingman Company - who are the leaders. This industry has a very high turnover rate, which causes a lot of problems and solves others. The rates are as high as 200% per year at the line level and nearly 85% at the middle management level. This leads to the existence of a large number of recruiting and staffing agencies. The industry is further affected by a very cyclical nature and totally dependent on discretionary spending. Supply and rates also affect the industry to a very large extent. Right now hospitality is not in terms with hospitality, though it had very good profits in The industry has also consolidated over the past few years, and this has led to the demand, which has become cyclical with regard to its stocks. The Wall Street interests had funded this massive consolidation in hospitality industry about two years ago. The greatest factor in this sector of the service or hospitality industry is that one knows that they are selling Customer satisfaction. The channels of communicating with the guests and others have also changed and the related distribution opportunities have also changed dramatically. Hotels are no longer viewed as being the salesmen of rooms or places to sleep. They would like to think that they sell comfort and customer satisfaction. Restaurants also sell service, luxury and comfort and not only food.

Organizational Behavior

With the development of the world, there is a continuous development in the effective management of people, the transfer of information and improvement in customer relationships, which have today become the intangible assets of all industries- and this will progress even further in the new century. The management of personnel has always been viewed as a very important part of the management of any organization, but today there is even greater significance in selection, training and supervision of staff than ever before. These are today crucial for the profitability of any organization. At the same time, this is becoming more difficult due to the differences within the workforce. (Storey, 1992)

The differences in age between workers in the same level are very high; they come from different cultural backgrounds; have different levels of education and motivation in doing their jobs. The independence of the human mind and spirit has increased to a large extent. There is now a concept of life long learning which is accepted by many… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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