Term Paper: Human Resources Management

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Human Resource Management

Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) is a term used by the federal government to refer to employment practices that ensure nondiscrimination on the basis of race, sex, religion, color, national origin, physical or mental ability, medical condition, ancestry, or age. The standard behind EEO is that everyone should have the same entrance to opportunities. The purpose of affirmative action programs is to encourage fairness and address the effects of past discrimination in employment by supporting targeted outreach labors to attract underutilized minorities and women (Guide to Managing Human Resources, 2008).

Another purpose of affirmative action is to make certain that equal employment opportunity requires all federal contractors to take affirmative action to prevent discrimination in employment performs and to report on their progress. Affirmative action necessitates contractors to employ affirmative action plans to guarantee equal employment opportunity for underutilized minorities and women, people with disabilities and special disabled veterans. Supervisors, managers, and administrators, are responsible for serving the campus fulfill its equal opportunity tasks. This is done by making efforts toward obtaining affirmative action goals and making sure a workplace that is free of bias and harassment. The goal is to use and retain a diverse workforce of the best-qualified people (Guide to Managing Human Resources, 2008).

Equal Employment Opportunity means you a supervisor must: provide equal access to all available jobs, training, and promotional opportunities, provide similar benefits and services to everyone, apply all policies and practices consistently to applicants and staff and do not differentiate among applicants or employees on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, sex, physical or mental disability, medical condition, ancestry, marital status, or age (Guide to Managing Human Resources, 2008).

Decisive staffing needs is continuing processes as staffs resigns or retire. During this phase planning of present and future staffing needs are reflected on. This function is called Human Resource Planning. The next step is job analysis or identifying human resources needs. The job analysis is an outline of the responsibilities or tasks that an employee will be anticipated to perform. The job analysis will consist of two parts: job description and job specification. A job narrative sketches out the employees' duties, tasks and responsibilities. The job specification is an inventory of the key qualifications that are needed to perform a particular job in terms of education, skills and experience (Human Resources: Identify Staffing Needs, Recruitment and Selection, 2010).

This is the process of attracting capable job applicants by using advertisements, employment agencies or word of mouth. The common way of advertising includes in employment sections of newspapers and increasingly through online recruitment websites. The talent collection for a new job can come from outside recruiting outside the business or internal considering existing employees for promotion or a change of duties (Human Resources: Identify Staffing Needs, Recruitment and Selection, 2010).

Employee selection is often thought of as a viewing or sifting process. A variety of types of interviews, tests, physical examinations, referee and reference checks are all elements of this process. The scheme of selection is to select the most appropriate person for the position rather than the most qualified. Employee choice can be an expensive process in terms of time and effort, screening and advertising. An employee who leaves a business after a short time of employment will cost the business a lot of money. On the other hand it can be more expensive if the wrong person is employed and refuse to resign voluntarily (Human Resources: Identify Staffing Needs, Recruitment and Selection, 2010).

Human Resource Development (HRD) is the structure that is set up to help employees increase their personal and organizational skills, understanding, and abilities. Human Resource Development integrates such things as employee training, employee career growth, performance management and development, coaching, mentoring, succession planning, key employee identification, tuition assistance, and organization expansion. The center of all features of Human Resource Development is the development of the most advanced workforce so that the organization and individual employees can achieve their work goals in service to customers. Organizations often have many opportunities for human resources or employee development, both inside and outside of the workplace. Human Resource Development can be strict such as in classroom training, a college course, or an organizational planned change effort or it can be informal as in employee coaching by a manager (Heathfield, 2010).

Reasons for emphasizing the growth and development of personnel include: creating a pool of readily available and adequate replacements for personnel who may leave or move up in the organization, enhancing the company's ability to adopt and use advances in technology because of a sufficiently knowledgeable staff, building a more efficient, effective and highly motivated team, which enhances the company's competitive position and improves employee morale and ensuring adequate human resources for expansion into new programs. Research has shown specific benefits that a small business receives from training and developing its workers, including: increased productivity, along with reduced employee turnover, increased efficiency resulting in financial gains and decreased need for supervision. Employees frequently develop a greater sense of self-worth, dignity and well-being as they become more valuable to the firm and to society (Roberts, Seldon and Roberts, n.d.).

Pay is often not the essential issue that attracts and retains employees. Pay is still important, but so are other issues. People hardly ever leave a job for money alone. Alternately they leave for career advancement, technical or career challenge, communication reasons like lack of appreciation by company and failure to have an impact at the company or job security. Administering pay entails two main issues: controlling costs and leveraging pay. This is done by instituting a responsive compensation and benefits system that follow costs, helps make sure pay equity, is understood by employees, and keeps in touch with employee desires and what's fashionable in the market (Compensation and Benefits, n.d.)

Managing pay equity is managing employee perception. To do this, one needs an agile system. It is essential to avoid the tendency to define jobs so narrowly that each employee in the company has a unique job. Fewer jobs are better than more. If there are too many jobs it can cause the compensation system to be awkward and difficult to carry out. Managing inner equity is more important than outside equity. An employee is more likely to be familiar with the salary of the person in the office next to them, than the salary of a person at another company. Those employees who execute their jobs better should receive larger salary increases than those who do not. There are many good illustrations of merit pay systems in the marketplace ranging from structured to informal. Variable pay systems are growing in popularity and can offer an excellent connection between pays and job performance. The amount of communication that is appropriate will vary from company to company. Most companies don't often do a good job in communicating about how the pay structure works. Managers normally have the responsibility to communicate with their employees in regards to their pay. Managers are often reluctant to say too much for fear that they will have to justify some perceived pay inequity every organization has some pay inequities - it's inevitable (Compensation and Benefits, n.d.)

Employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthful workplace for their employees. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), an agency of the U.S. Department of Labor, has the responsibility of assuring the safety and health of America's workers by setting and enforcing standards; providing training, outreach and education; establishing partnerships; and encouraging continual improvement in workplace safety and health (Employee Health and Safety, 2009).

Tackling safety and health issues in the workplace works to save the employer money and add value to the business. Recent estimates have put the business costs associated with occupational injuries close to $170 billion in costs that come straight out of company profits. When workers stay whole and healthy, the direct cost-savings to businesses include: lower workers' compensation insurance costs, reduced medical expenditures, smaller expenditures for return-to-work programs, fewer faulty products, lower costs for job accommodations for injured workers and less money spent for overtime benefits (Employee Health and Safety, 2009).

Safety and health also make big declines in indirect costs because of increased output, higher quality products, increased morale, better labor associations, reduced turnover and better use of human resources. Employees and their families gain from safety and health because: their incomes are sheltered, their family lives are not disadvantaged by injury and they have less pressure. Protecting people while on the job is in everyone's best interest. Safety and health add value to companies and workplaces. Nobody wants accidents to happen in their business so regardless of the size of the business; there should be a plan in place to prevent workplace accidents and possible injuries and illnesses (Employee Health and Safety, 2009).

Employee Relations connect the body of work concerned with upholding employer-employee relationships that add to acceptable productivity, enthusiasm, and morale. Basically, employee associations are concerned with averting and… [END OF PREVIEW]

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