Dissertation: Human Resources Managing Organisational Culture

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Understanding of organisational culture and cultural types also helps the understanding of why managerial reforms may impact differently within and between organisations. An organisation with a predominantly internal process culture, for example, may be more resistant to reforms aimed at promoting innovation. It is expected that staff in high uncertainty avoidance cultures to be more concerned with rule-following and more reluctant to risk changing jobs - both factors of some importance for those reformers who want to deregulate bureaucracies and encourage more rapid job change in the public service'. Businesses in both the private and public sectors have come to understand that organisational change frequently requires changing the organisation's culture and learning (O'Donnell & Boyle, 2008).

Whatever the purpose and performance results of culture management efforts, models of culture alteration focus on either ordinary evolution or required revolution. The most recognized evolutionary approach is the framework of Sathe (1983). This approach centres on the basis that as new organizational members are socialized, they are infiltrated with the organization's culture, which is further reinforced as lively interaction takes place. Therefore, through focusing on how culture evolves, Sathe (1983) argues that culture intervention efforts should center on the means by which culture is perpetuated, for instance during socialization processes and rituals. In spite of general accord that cultural evolution takes place, promoted approaches to culture interventions are more normally revolutionary in nature (Harris & Ogbonna, 2002).

Frameworks and models of culture change, in part, reflect the range of perspectives on culture change. A review of the literature finds that there are three broad perspectives through which the issue of culture management has been discussed. The first category of studies consists of those writers who adopt the view that culture is an organizational variable, which, akin to other variables, is subject to direct management control. This perspective is illustrated by the work of many functionalists. In addition, this view of culture management is obvious in the arguments of early culture theorists who supported the professed links between sturdy cultural traits and organizational performance (Harris & Ogbonna, 2002).

Organizational Culture in the UK

Successful organisations are characterised by strong values and a strong guiding view that communicates what behaviour is suitable and what is not. If these values are broadly shared across the organisation and are reflected in the everyday behaviors of workers at all levels, both individually and collectively, then there is a strong culture. Evidence has shown that organisational success is dependent on having the right mix of HR policies in place. "The ability, motivation and opportunity (AMO) model supports the theory that business success is based on the capacity of organisations:

to recruit people with the right ability to motivate them to provide them with the opportunities to use their skills in well-designed jobs" (Vision and values: organisational culture and values as a source of competitive advantage, 2012).

Research also discovered that it's significant for organisations to generate the kind of environment or culture where the positive managerial actions of listening, coaching, guiding, involving and problem-solving are actively supported and reinforced. This is where HR policy is vital as it reflects and reinforces organisational values and culture. A lot of the companies looked at focused on a few key words that simply convey what the purpose or values of the organisation are how the organisation works and what it's like to work there. In order to construct commitment and drive improved performance it needs to be:

embedded and understood across the organisation integrated into relationships between stakeholders

enduring, built around or on a legacy of past success habitual, with behaviours repeated, collective and routine (Vision and values:

organisational culture and values as a source of competitive advantage, 2012).

"The research also clearly shows a link amid between strong shared values and high commitment. Where strongly shared values can be demonstrated, people are more likely to be satisfied, displaying higher levels of organisational commitment, lower quit rates, greater customer satisfaction, and lower levels of dissent or dissatisfaction over levels of pay" (Vision and values: Organisational culture and values as a source of competitive advantage, 2012).

Managing Organizational Culture in the UK

While incremental advances in new product introduction appear to be reliant on conventional management structures and processes in the UK, radical innovation can command an organizational reaction that reaches beyond the ready-state approach to managing innovation. Fundamental innovation is high-risk and high-return, and consequently does not react well to the management practices applied to incremental innovation activities. Even though there are a lot of dimensions that pressure both incremental and radical innovation, for instance, national systems, knowledge flows and labour markets, it is normally agreed that organizational culture is an important influence on the inclination of an organization towards innovation. While there is difference about how to best systematize for radical innovation, most managers agree that radical innovation is perpetually a perplexed, uncertain process when compared to incremental improvement. The innovative driving force for innovation is technological or the personal inquisitiveness of individuals, rather than market led and for most operating businesses, it is an unnatural act because the indecision is too high, the time horizon too long, and the investment too large, given the risks. Organizing for irregular innovation, particularly in the highly uncertain front end of the process, is frequently separated from ongoing business activities (McLaughlin, Bessant & Smart, n.d).

Different kinds of innovation necessitate different kinds of organizational hardware structures, systems and rewards and dissimilar kinds of software- human resources, networks and culture. Throughout periods of incremental change organizations can rely on units with relatively formalized roles and responsibilities, centralized procedures, functional structures, efficiency-oriented cultures, strong manufacturing and sales capabilities and relatively homogeneous, older and experienced human resources. These units are characterized by a high degree of inertia, emphasizing efficiency, teamwork and continuous improvement. During periods of discontinuous innovation, organizations require entrepreneurial types of units. These units are comparatively small, have loose decentralized product arrangements, untried cultures, strong capitalist and technical competencies and fairly young and heterogeneous workers. They build new knowledge bases and information systems. Incremental innovation typically highlights cost or feature developments in existing products or services mainly depend on development competencies. "In contrast radical innovation concerns the development of new business or product lines, based on new ideas or technologies or substantial cost reductions that transform the economics of a business and require exploration competencies" (McLaughlin, Bessant & Smart, n.d).

The heightened significance given to effective people management places HRM at the center of the organization's business strategy, making it extremely attractive to business owners as well as to line managers, whose role was also improved because of the active stance they are necessary to play in the achievement of HR policies. Another attractive characteristic is the supposition of a fundamentally harmonious association between workers and their managers where both parties are professed as working towards the same goal of organizational accomplishment. This was in marked contrast to traditional people management approaches in the UK, where workplace conflicts between management and trade unions were seen as an inevitable and frequently occurring part of the employment relationship (Human Resource Management in Context, n.d.).

This vision of HRM distinguishes that stakeholder interests are more likely to be achieved if HR policy choices and results ensure worker well-being. Its flexibility with regard to stakeholder interests made the model easier to export beyond the U.S.A., since it recognizes key areas of difference across national boundaries. It positively proved to be the more popular approach in the UK, despite criticism from some academics for its preference for the unitarist view which is an outlook on people management that highlights harmonious relationships between managers and employees and an acceptance of organizational objectives over the pluralist view of the workplace, which sees conflict as inevitable. But it should be noted that neither model pays much attention to the realities of work inside the organization or to the contested, contradictory, and fragmented nature of the employment relationship between employer and employee (Human Resource Management in Context, n.d.).

Organizational Culture in China

At the beginning of the 21st century, the People's Republic of China finds itself in the middle of social, financial and cultural transition, some might even say chaos. The old assurances, which epitomised the iron-tight grip of the Communist Party during the reign of Mao Zedong, have long since been replaced by the more liberal but uncertain policies instituted by Mao's great transformational successor, Deng Xiaoping and… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Human Resources Managing Organisational Culture.  (2012, August 21).  Retrieved June 19, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/human-resources-managing-organisational/8512155

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"Human Resources Managing Organisational Culture."  Essaytown.com.  August 21, 2012.  Accessed June 19, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/human-resources-managing-organisational/8512155.